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Road types/USA

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{{LocalGuidance|link=Mapping resources/USA/States}}
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== {{@|Overview }} ==
=== {{@|A hybrid system }} ===
Road types in the United States are determined through a hybrid system of FHWA functional classification and U.S., state, and sometimes county highway systems. These systems work together to create a harmonious Waze map with excellent routing characteristics. Neither of these two facets of the road type system should be considered sufficient on its own, without the other. The road type guidance has been carefully crafted to join these two systems into one single contiguous Waze road type system.
==== {{@|Functional classification }} ====
Functional classifications (FC) are determined using a set of criteria selected by the [[wikipedia:Federal Highway Administration|Federal Highway Administration]] (FHWA). These criteria include not only the physical attributes of the road but also efficiency of travel, number of access points, speed limits, route spacing, actual usage, and continuity. This can lead to quite different classifications for roads that appear similar. For example, a six-lane divided road in an urbanized area may be a Collector (Primary Street); a two-lane road through the middle of a town may be a principal arterial (Major Highway).
Functional classification is a national standard, but functional classification maps are published by state departments of transportation. Links to functional classification maps for each state can be found on [[National resources/USA/Functional classification|the USA functional classification page]].
==== {{@|Highway systems }} ====
The '''[[wikipedia:Interstate Highway System|Interstate Highway System]]''' (formally, the Dwight D. Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways) is a nationwide network of freeways designated by Congress and administered by the FHWA and [[wikipedia:American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials|AASHTO]], a nationwide organization of state departments of transportation with governmental support. The system facilitates high-speed travel throughout the nation.
In addition to their state highway systems, some states designate [[wikipedia:County highway|county routes]] which are important for travel within a county. These routes serve important functions in a short-distance capacity.
=== {{@|Importance of road types }} ===
Road types are important for both routing and map display:
The {{Freeway}} and {{Ramp}} road types each have their own special rules. The {{Major Highway}}, {{Minor Highway}}, and {{Primary Street}} types are designated using a set of minimum criteria, as explained [[#Highways|below]].
====Exceptions==== Occasionally, if deemed necessary for proper routing, a particular road's type may be set higher than as prescribed in these rules. If a road has a '''higher''' type than set forth in these rules, there may be a reason for it.  [[File:Connector.png|thumb|right|300px|Connector.png|Because the freeway exit is signed to the state route at the bottom of the image, and exiting traffic must use the road on the left to reach it, this road has been given the Major Highway type.]] One common reason for a road to be set to a higher type is if that road is a '''connecting road''' between two roads with higher types. Promotion of a connecting road is only warranted if the road is signed from one road ''to'' the other. For example, a freeway exit may be signed as to a particular highway, but the only way to get to that highway from the exit ramps is over a lesser road. Where such connections are supported by signage, the road type of the connecting road should match the lower of the two roads that it connects, up to major highway (In the USA a road may only ever be set to freeway if it meets the criteria of the [[Road types/USA#Freeway|Freeway]] section). Promotion of connecting roads preserves routing continuity and prevents Waze from pruning out valid routes. In rare cases, a particular road may require a '''lower''' type than as prescribed in these rules. Contact your regional coordinator before lowering the type of any road past the bounds of the rules.
Special rules are used to determine the road types of [[Creating and Editing a roundabout#Road type|roundabouts]] and [[At-grade connectors#How to label the connector type|at-grade connectors]].
Road types do not affect naming. See [[Road Naming (USA)]].
=== {{@|Before editing }} ===
Be sure that you are completely familiar with the articles on:
* [[Waze Map Editor|The Waze Map Editor]]
* [[At-grade connectors]]
== {{@|Public roads }} ==
Public roads are those who can be driven by anyone. Naturally, they are by far the most important roads on the Waze map.
=== {{@|Highways }} ===
A '''highway''' is an arterial road.
*various County (or Parish) Highway systems, in some states
Waze's definition of "highways" includes all theseInterstate, US and state highways, but it also includes all other roads that are classified as arterial roads under the FHWA functional classification lists maintained by state governments, even though they may not necessarily a be part of any numbered highway system. In other words Functional classification of roads is determined more by how the roads are used than by how they are constructed, think of and the dictionary definition criteria are slightly different between urban and rural areas. Because of "this, some urban roads may be classified as arterials and have highway" ("a main roadtypes in Waze, espeven though they appear very similar to other non-highway roads. one connecting major towns or cities") rather than In using functional classification and numbered highway systems, the decision on which roads should be classified as highways rests ultimately with the legal definition of governments that build and maintain the termroads.
Waze distinguishes three classes of highway: {{Freeway}}, {{Major Highway}}, and {{Minor Highway}}.
==== Freeway {{Freeway|&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;}} {{Anchor|Fwy|freeway|fwy}} {{@||Freeway}} ==== 
[[Image:RoadPicN.jpg|right|400px]]
For information on how to best layout freeways and their junctions, please review the section on [[Junction_Style_Guide#Highway.2FFreeway_Junctions|freeways]] in the [[Junction Style Guide]]. For specific guidelines in other countries refer to [[How_to_label_and_name_roads|this page for more information]].
====Major Highway {{Major Highway|&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;}} {{Anchor|Major highway|major highway|MH}} {{@||Major Highway}}==== 
[[Image:Maj-hwy.jpg|thumb|right|450px|A partially-limited-access roadway, or "expressway". Note the interchange to the left and the at-grade intersection to the right.]]
*Business routes (Spurs and Loops) in the Interstate Highway System (e.g., I-69 Business Loop).
====Minor Highway{{Minor Highway|&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;}} {{Anchor|Minor highway|minor highway|mH|mh}} {{@||Minor Highway}}====
'''Minor arterials''' (or '''other arterials''') are secondary routes for traveling between cities over moderately long distances. Minor or other arterials are classified in Waze as Minor Highways.
Note: Not every state highway system is the same. Some state systems may be overinclusive, whether because of differing standards or because of political corruption and pork barrel spending; as such, your state may make exceptions where some lesser state highways are better represented by the Primary Street type. Contact your regional coordinator before making these decisions.
==== Ramps {{Ramp|&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;}} {{@||Ramps}} ====
[[File:RoadPicN2.jpg|right|300px|RoadPicN2.jpg]] [[File:HBlue.png|right|300px|HBlue.png]]
Information on how to lay out ramps and set the proper angles from the main road can be found in the [[Junction Style Guide]]. {{clear}}
=== {{@|Streets}} ===
The Street types are for local and short-distance travel. Street types are used at the beginning and end of long routes as well.
====Primary Street {{Primary Street|&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;}} {{Anchor|Primary street|primary street|PS|PS}} {{@||Primary Street}}====
'''Collectors''' are roads used with medium-low traffic densities which are used to bring traffic from local streets to arterials and vice versa. Collectors are classified in Waze as Primary Streets.
{{clear}}
====Street [[Image:{{Street.png|200px]]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;}} {{Anchor|street|St|st}} {{@||Street}} ==== 
[[Image:RoadPicN4.jpg|right|400px]]
*Any road for public travel which does not meet the criteria for any other type shall be classified as a {{Street}}. Shown as "local roads" in some functional classification maps; not shown at all in others.
{{clear}}
 ==== {{@|Service Road }} ====
{{mbox
{{clear}}
=== {{Anchor|FC cross reference}} {{@|Quick reference chart }} ===
Refer to this chart to determine the road type of a given paved public road based on the functional class.
</div>
== {{@|Other drivable roads }} ==
=== {{anchor|Dirt}}Dirt Road / 4X4 Trail {{Dirt Road / 4X4 Trail|&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;}} {{anchor|Dirt|Dirt Road|Dirt road|Dirt road / 4X4 trail|4X4 Trail|4X4 trail|4x4 Trail|4x4 trail|dirt road}} {{@||Dirt Road / 4X4 Trail}} ===
[[File:RoadPicN6.jpg|right|300px|RoadPicN6.jpg]]
Generally, a road The {{Dirt Road / 4X4 Trail}} type has the unique property that is Waze users may ask not pavedto be routed over it. Users may ask to avoid it for all through routing with the settings option "Dirt roads - Don't allow", or to avoid it for through routing longer than 300 m (984 ft) with the option "Dirt roads - Avoid long ones".
Roads Because of the {{Dirt Road / 4X4 Trail}} this property, this type will not be used if the user has selected the "Don't allow" option typically represents public side roads that some fraction of local drivers habitually avoid due to surface quality. In metropolitan or other urbanized regions, this generally means unpaved (dirt, gravel, crushed rock) roads, or roads in the clientuncommonly poor condition by local standards. In other areas, roads with unpaved surfaces may be essential routes and segments longer than 300m will be avoided thus necessarily set to other types such as Street, Primary Street, or even higher, as if the user has selected "Avoid long ones"they were paved.
In some areas of the country, improved unpaved roads (gravel, macadam, etc.) are set to this type. In other areas, improved unpaved roads, and possibly certain dirt roads, will be set to other types, as if they were paved. Check your [[Mapping resources/USA|state page]] for details on whether your state follows unique guidelines for dirt roads, or contact your regional coordinator for further guidance. {{clear}}
=== Parking Lot Road {{PLR|&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;}} {{anchor|Parking lot road|PLR|plr|Plr}} {{@||Parking Lot Road}} ===
[[File:RoadPicN7.jpg|right|300px|RoadPicN7.jpg]] Parking lots, along with other publicly accessible roads such as '''alleys''' that should not be used for traffic routing unless directly at the start or end point of a route.
Information on mapping a parking lot landmark "place" is covered [[Places#Parking Lot|here]].
=== Private Road {{Private Road|&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;}} {{anchor|Private road|private road|private|Private|PVT|PR|pr|pvt|Pvt}} {{@||Private Road}} ===
[[File:Pi gated-community1.jpg|right|300px|Pi gated-community1.jpg]]{{Private Road|Private roads}} are useful for the following situations:
{{clear}}
== {{@|Non-drivable roads }} ==
'''Your car should not be here!'''
=== {{@|Emergency Vehicle and DOT Service Roads }} ===
[[File:Emergency.jpg|right|300px|Emergency.jpg]] "Emergency and Authorized Vehicles Only" and DOT Service Roads are to be treated as Non-drivable roads. These are found primarily through the median of divided highways to connect opposite direction lanes. If mapped, they should not be connected to any drivable road, with properties set to road type Private Road, and lock the segment at as high a rank as possible, up to rank 5. {{clear}}
=== {{@|Walking Trails }} ===
<!-- [[File:RoadPicN9.jpg|right|300px|RoadPicN9.jpg]] THIS FIGURE OF A PLEASANT LEAFY WALKING TRACK COMMENTED OUT UNTIL A MORE APPROPRIATE IMAGE CAN BE FOUND. --DwarfLord, June 6 2015 -->
If the GPS Points layer shows clearly that pedestrians and cyclists already use Waze on a path or trail that lies parallel to a drivable road, then, {{as of|2015|5|lc=yes}}, the path may be mapped with a Pedestrian Boardwalk. Doing so will limit the damage these Wazers would otherwise cause to the road's speed data. Such paths should only be mapped once it is clear Wazers regularly use them.
==== {{@|Applications }} ====
In rare cases, connected Walking Trails can bring drivers to destinations where otherwise Waze might fail to offer the best route. For example:
Orientation or destination applications involving foot or bicycle paths that do not require routing, such as marking where an obvious bicycle path crosses a road or where a trailhead is located, should not use the Walking Trail type. Use Pedestrian Boardwalks, Stairways, or Point Places as appropriate.
==== {{@|Naming }} ====
If destinations are addressed using House Numbers on a Walking Trail, it is essential that the Walking Trail's name and city fields be set accordingly so that routing to the addresses will work. For other routing situations, Walking Trails should be named to alert drivers that they must leave their car. For example, a Walking Trail connecting the two sides of a train station may be named "Station Access Footpath".
{{clear}}
=== {{@|Pedestrian Boardwalks }} ===
{{Pedestrian Boardwalk|&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;}}[[File:RoadPicN10.jpg|right|300px|RoadPicN10.jpg]] {{clear}}
=== {{@|Stairway }} ===
{{Stairway|&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;}}
[[File:RoadPicN11.jpg|right|300px|RoadPicN11.jpg]] {{clear}}
=== Railroad === [[File:RailroadTracksVanishingPoint.jpg|right|300px|RoadPicN11.jpg]]The {{@|Railroad}} road type serves three purposes in Waze. First, it provides drivers with visual orientation relative to railroad and light-rail tracks. More importantly, in the common case where passenger-carrying tracks lie parallel with roads, mapping the tracks allows Waze to recognize spurious speed data from people Wazing on the train and prevent it from corrupting speed data for the adjacent road. Finally, when a railroad crosses a drivable road segment at grade (same elevation) the routing server can better determine delays at that crossing.{{clear}}===
{{mbox
| type = important
| text = The guidelines below which allow junctioning have been updated to reflect new standards on naming of railroads to drivable segments is new as of October 24June 28th, 2014.#There is no need to make mass railroad changes immediately.#Railroad junctions are expected to be made gradually over time. #There is to be no massive railroad updating project2016.
}}
[[File:RailroadTracksVanishingPoint.jpg|right|300px|RoadPicN11.jpg]]The {{As of|2015|7Railroad}} the automated [[Map Problems road type serves three purposes in Waze Map Editor|Map Problem]] search algorithm will identify suspected errors at . First, it provides drivers with visual orientation relative to railroad crossingsand light-rail tracks. It is More importantly, in the common case where passenger-carrying tracks lie parallel with roads, mapping the tracks allows Waze to see recognize spurious speed data from people Wazing on the train and prevent it from corrupting speed data for the “restricted turn might be allowed” error where adjacent road. Finally, when a railroad crosses a drivable road segment nearby to where another drivable segment also crosses. These kinds of map error should be marked as “Not Identified” so that they are not shown again at grade (same elevation) the routing server can better determine delays at that location. Do not enable turns at railroad crossingscrossing.{{clear}}
Use the following guidelines when '''mapping''' railroad segments:
* By default, '''Do NOT''' enter "Railroad" a name for the street name of every railroad segmentunless the tracks are historical in nature, a major landmark, or a routine destination for Wazers and your local state/regional wiki guidelines allow for such naming. The Waze app now renders railroad tracks as such so naming serves little purpose any longer. (See more below on Naming railroad segments.)
* Always select "None" for the city name. This avoids [[City smudge|city smudging]].
* Lock the segment at L2.
* Create junctions between drivable roads and railroads.{{ref label|rr|rr}}
* Set railroad to 2-way directionality
* Restrict turns ''to and from'' the railroad segments.
* When mapping railroad tracks, focus on those near drivable roads.
* Map rail yards simply, with one railroad segment along either edge of the yard's tracks.
* Map industrial spurs only if they cross drivable roads.
* Do not map '''every''' piece of parallel track, such as in sidings or yards, or industrial spurs that don't do not cross any roads. Your work may otherwise be seen as clutter, much like mapping every parking lot row.
* Multiple parallel lines at crossings:
** At most crossings, there should be only one railroad segment mapped and no more than two parallel railroads mapped at any crossing.
<small>{{note|rr|rr}} ''Note: The routing server will properly account for delays at railroad crossings through a segment without a junction. However, with a junction, the historical data for the rail crossing will be more accurate.''</small>
 Use the following guidelines when '''naming''' railroad segments:* For commercially-controlled right-of-ways, rather than apply the default "Railroad" name, you may optionally use the owner's full legal name spelled out without acronyms or abbreviations (e.g. "New Orleans Public Belt Railroad"). Some owners' names incorporate what appear to be or once were acronyms but are actually part of the legal name (e.g., "BNSF Railway", "CSX Railroad").** In case of uncertain ownership, do not guess. Use the default "Railroad" name.** Do not name a railroad segment for a passenger operator that uses it, regardless of how many passengers or how little freight it may carry, unless you are absolutely certain that the passenger operator owns the track. For example, do not name a segment "Amtrak" unless Amtrak actually owns the track ([http://en.wikipedia.org/only if allowed by your local wiki/Amtrak#Trains_and_tracks it usually does not], except in the [httpguidelines://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Northeast_Corridor|Northeast Corridor] and in a few other areas).** Do not apply "fallen flags" (former owners that no longer exist due to bankruptcy or merger) in the alternate field.** Keep in mind that should the name of the owner change, due to bankruptcy, merger, or other business decision, you or another editor will need to come back and fix all now-incorrect segments. Railroads can change names often; for example, BNSF Railway has been known by that name only since 2005, and its previous name was in use for only eight years. * For urban rapid transit and light rail systems, rather than apply the default "Railroad" name, you may optionally use the name of the transit authority and the name of the line, separated by a hyphen (e.g., "MBTA - Green Line", "RTA - Riverfront Streetcar").
** If a system has only one line, of course, use its name alone (e.g., "Detroit People Mover").
** If multiple lines share the same track or run on parallel tracks, include all lines (e.g., "Metro Rail - Red/Purple Lines").
** However, if a rapid transit system is so complex that including all line names would lead to an absurd result on some railroad segments, use the name of the system alone (e.g., "BART", "MTA") throughout the system.
* Federal DOT Railroad GIS: http://fragis.fra.dot.gov/Apps/GISFRASafety/
   '''Waze - Support''' '''Railroads should be labeled as such in the editor. For the time being they won't make it to the client indeed, but in the future we might want to use them for display purposes.''' '''The "railroad" road type in the editor is under "non drivable" so it should not cause any issue to the routing.'''<br>
For specific recommendations in other countries outside the United States, please see the [[Road types and names|entry for the country in question here]]. {{clear}}
=== Runway/Taxiway[[File:Service road.png|200px|Service road.png]] {{Anchor|Runway|Taxiway}} {{@||Runway/Taxiway}}===
[[File:Runways.png|right|300px]]Airport runways and private airstrips may be mapped using the Runway/Taxiway road type. The Runway/Taxiway type is for display only and must never connect to drivable road segments. If a drivable road and a runway cross, set the [[elevation]] of the road below that of the runway and ensure there is no connection. Draw each runway as a single segment and lock it to prevent lower-ranking editors from attaching a road. Do not form junctions where runways cross each other.
Name each runway using the word ''Runway'' and the runway designations with the lower number first and a hyphen between runway numbers (e.g., "Runway 16R-34L".) <!-- The preferred airport identifier is the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Air_Transport_Association_airport_code IATA] [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_airports 3-letter code], for example "SFO", "LAX", "JFK", etc. If the airport in question is not included in that list, use the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Civil_Aviation_Organization_airport_code ICAO] [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Civil_Aviation_Organization_airport_code#Prefixes 4-letter code] instead. If the airport is not included in that list use the [http://www.faa.gov/air_traffic/publications/atpubs/lid/lidhme.htm FAA identifier]. --> For the "City" field of runway segments, check "None" to avoid any chance of [[City smudge|city smudging]]. {{clear}}
[[File:Fly-inCommunity.png|right|250px]]
Despite its title, the Runway/Taxiway road type should never be used for an aircraft taxiway because it would render the same as a runway and confuse the display. Taxiways not intended for frequent access by street vehicles should not be mapped at all with any road type. Taxiways that do commonly serve street vehicles as well as aircraft, for example at [http://www.waze.com/editor/?zoom=5&lat=38.68054&lon=-120.98836&env=usa&layers=389 fly-in communities], may be mapped as Streets provided they remain disconnected from any runway.
{{clear}}
=== {{@|Ferry [[File:Service road.png|200px|Service road.png]] }} === 
{{mbox
| type = warningimportant| text = The {{As of|2016|alt= Prior to 2016}} the Ferry Road type is was not to be used at this . Since that time. '''Do not , there have been changes to the [[Routing server]] that allow the use of the Ferry Road type for any purpose.''' See [[ferries]] page for more information on how to map ferries.
}}
{{clear}}
 
The Ferry road type should only be used where a road crosses a body of water through the use of an automotive ferry. For more on how to map ferries see [[Ferries/USA]]. The Ferry Road type is useful because it causes the Waze App to display a "ferry" symbol for routes that include a {{Ferry}} segment.
 
The Ferry road type is treated by the [[Routing server]] as a minor highway.The speed for the ferry road type is fixed at a very slow speed typical of watercraft, and not estimated from user speeds.
 
{{mbox|type=important|text=If the ferry you are working on crosses an area well covered with GPS traces, OR [[Wikipedia:List_of_HSC_ferry_routes| travels at higher than normal speeds]], please notify your [[Regional Coordinator]]. '''Additionally, if you have issues with routes passing thru a ferry segment, please contact your [[Regional Coordinator]].'''}}
== Roundabouts [[Image:Round.png |50px]] ==
{{clear}}
== {{@|Special case roads not covered }} ==
There are a number of other types of roadways and lane types which are not directly covered with the current options above. In some cases there are plans to add some of these special cases, but in the mean time the following guidelines are the best that can be done with the current settings.
=== {{@|Bus or cab only lanes }} ===
When a road or lane is designated for bus or cab use only, mark that road segment(s) as a '''Private Road''' to prevent the Waze router from using that segment(s) for general traffic, since the majority of the users will not be able to use that lane. It is also advisable to set the turn restrictions to prevent turns into that segment(s), but permit turns exiting the segment.
=== {{@|Driveways }} ===Most Many residents of urban communities have very short driveways between the named road that they live on and the garage or carport on their property. In general these very short segments should not be mapped , because they have no name, would clutter the map in the client app, take a lot of time to draw, and would greatly increase the overall size of the Waze mapping database with very little return.
In the case of very long driveways, it may helpful to a driver to see the driveway mapped on the client app or even necessary for Waze to determine how to reach the destination. In those cases it may be prudent to add a road. See the article on [[Driveways]] for more information.
== {{@|See Also }} ==
[[Road names/USA]]<br>
[[Junction Style Guide]]<br>
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