Difference between revisions of "Road types/USA"

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'''''Note: There is always an exception to every rule.'''''
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{{mbox
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| type = critical
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| text = The contents of this page were completely revamped starting 19 April 2014, to incorporate an entirely new set of guidelines for map editing. All US editors should familiarize themselves with the contents of this page. Please see [http://www.waze.com/forum/viewtopic.php?f=276&t=85397 this topic] for details.
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}}
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{{UpdatedBanner
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|majorDate    = 1/14/15
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|majorDesc    = Clarify when to use PLR vs Private Road for apartment complexes, trailer parks, schools, universities, etc.
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|majorForum  = http://www.waze.com/forum/viewtopic.php?f=276&t=124820}}
  
==Overview==
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'''Road types''' in the United States can be divided into three categories: public roads, other drivable roads, and non-drivable roads.
Road type designations in Waze should be determined by the physical layout and use of the road, not by the name of a road.
 
  
Road types do not affect naming.  A dirt road that is a US Highway would still be named as “US Hwy #.”  See [[Road Naming (USA)]]
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Public road types in Waze are determined by the FHWA functional classification of the road and, where applicable, by the highway system to which the road belongs.
  
Some road type classifications are influenced by city size, traffic density, and regional conventions.  For example, in a very large city a primary street may have three or more lanes in each direction on a divided road.  While in a town of dirt roads, the only paved single lane street could be a primary street.
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{{LocalGuidance|link=Mapping resources/USA/States}}
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<br/>
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== {{@|Overview}} ==
  
While editing the maps, you may notice that some of the roads are not labeled properly. This means, the road type might be wrong (a highway is marked as a street) or that one road has a few road types (a highway is marked as Freeway, highway and primary at different segments).
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=== {{@|A hybrid system}} ===
  
The importance of proper labeling is in two aspects:
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Road types in the United States are determined through a hybrid system of FHWA functional classification and U.S., state, and sometimes county highway systems. These systems work together to create a harmonious Waze map with excellent routing characteristics. Neither of these two facets of the road type system should be considered sufficient on its own, without the other. The road type guidance has been carefully crafted to join these two systems into one single contiguous Waze road type system.
# When viewing the map, the 'bigger' roads should appear at the far zoom levels. Without proper labels, the 'zoomed out' display can be very confusing.  
 
# When planning a route, major roads will get priority over smaller roads.
 
===Starting Point===
 
Naming conventions can be useful as starting point when determining a road type.  Be aware that there are many regional naming variations.  Remember that this is only guide on where to start when determining a road type.
 
*Interstate ~ Freeway [[Image:RoadBlue.png|180px]]
 
*US Hwy ~ Major Highway [[Image:Majorhighwayseg.png |200px]]
 
*State Hwy ~ Minor Highway [[Image:RoadYell.png |200px]]
 
*County Road ~ Primary Street.  [[Image:Primary street.png|200px]]
 
*City street ~ Street.  [[Image:Street.png|200px]]
 
*Exit ~ Ramp [[Image:Ramp.png |200px]]
 
*Unnamed ~ Parking Lot Road [[Image:Service road.png|200px]]
 
  
 +
==== {{@|Functional classification}} ====
  
 +
Functional classifications (FC) are determined using a set of criteria selected by the [[wikipedia:Federal Highway Administration|Federal Highway Administration]] (FHWA). These criteria include not only the physical attributes of the road but also efficiency of travel, number of access points, speed limits, route spacing, actual usage, and continuity. This can lead to quite different classifications for roads that appear similar. For example, a six-lane divided road in an urbanized area may be a Collector (Primary Street); a two-lane road through the middle of a town may be a principal arterial (Major Highway).
 +
 +
Functional classification is a national standard, but functional classification maps are published by state departments of transportation. Links to functional classification maps for each state can be found on [[National resources/USA/Functional classification|the USA functional classification page]].
 +
 +
==== {{@|Highway systems}} ====
 +
 +
The '''[[wikipedia:Interstate Highway System|Interstate Highway System]]''' (formally, the Dwight D. Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways) is a nationwide network of freeways designated by Congress and administered by the FHWA and [[wikipedia:American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials|AASHTO]], a nationwide organization of state departments of transportation with governmental support. The system facilitates high-speed travel throughout the nation.
 +
 +
The [[wikipedia:United States Numbered Highways|United States Numbered Highways]], or '''U.S. Highways''', system is a nationwide integrated network of roads also designated by Congress and administered by the FHWA and AASHTO. While many of the routes in this system have been superseded by the Interstate Highway System, they remain important as direct links between regions not served by the new system, and as alternatives to Interstate travel in the case of heavy traffic or incident.
 +
 +
Each of the fifty states (along with the District of Columbia and some of the United States's overseas territories) has a numbered '''[[wikipedia:state highway|state highway]] system'''. These systems are designated and administered by their respective state legislatures and departments of transportation as statewide networks of important travel links between cities and communities of those states. The roads in these systems, while of lesser national importance, are nevertheless essential for travel within the state.
 +
 +
In addition to their state highway systems, some states designate [[wikipedia:County highway|county routes]] which are important for travel within a county. These routes serve important functions in a short-distance capacity.
 +
 +
=== {{@|Importance of road types}} ===
 +
 +
Road types are important for both routing and map display:
 +
# When planning a route, major roads will sometimes get priority over smaller roads.
 +
#* For longer routes, some lower road types will often be ignored outright in favor of higher-type roads.
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#* Since freeways are given the highest priority of all, having other high-type roads is necessary to provide viable alternatives to the routing server in case freeways are clogged with traffic.
 +
# When viewing the map, more important roads should appear at the far zoom levels. Without proper types, the zoomed out display can be misleading.
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 +
The {{Freeway}} and {{Ramp}} road types each have their own special rules. The {{Major Highway}}, {{Minor Highway}}, and {{Primary Street}} types are designated using a set of minimum criteria, as explained [[#Highways|below]].
 +
 +
====Exceptions====
 +
 +
Occasionally, if deemed necessary for proper routing, a particular road's type may be set higher than as prescribed in these rules. If a road has a '''higher''' type than set forth in these rules, there may be a reason for it.
 +
 +
[[File:Connector.png|thumb|right|300px|Connector.png|Because the freeway exit is signed to the state route at the bottom of the image, and exiting traffic must use the road on the left to reach it, this road has been given the Major Highway type.]]
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 +
One common reason for a road to be set to a higher type is if that road is a '''connecting road''' between two roads with higher types. Promotion of a connecting road is only warranted if the road is signed from one road ''to'' the other. For example, a freeway exit may be signed as to a particular highway, but the only way to get to that highway from the exit ramps is over a lesser road. Where such connections are supported by signage, the road type of the connecting road should match the lower of the two roads that it connects, up to major highway (In the USA a road may only ever be set to freeway if it meets the criteria of the [[Road types/USA#Freeway|Freeway]] section). Promotion of connecting roads preserves routing continuity and prevents Waze from pruning out valid routes.
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 +
In rare cases, a particular road may require a '''lower''' type than as prescribed in these rules. Contact your regional coordinator before lowering the type of any road past the bounds of the rules.
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Special rules are used to determine the road types of [[Creating and Editing a roundabout#Road type|roundabouts]] and [[At-grade connectors#How to label the connector type|at-grade connectors]].
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 +
Road types do not affect naming. See [[Road Naming (USA)]].
 +
 +
=== {{@|Before editing}} ===
 +
Be sure that you are completely familiar with the articles on:
 +
* [[Waze Map Editor|The Waze Map Editor]]
 +
* [[Creating and editing road segments]]
 +
* [[Junction Style Guide]]
 +
* [[Creating and Editing a roundabout]]
 +
* [[At-grade connectors]]
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 +
== {{@|Public roads}} ==
 +
Public roads are those who can be driven by anyone. Naturally, they are by far the most important roads on the Waze map.
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{{mbox | type = warning | text = <div style="font-size:smaller">Public roads are designated by a series of '''minimum criteria'''.
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If a road meets '''any one''' criterion for a type, the road must be '''at least''' that type.
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 +
For example,
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* a county highway (Waze: at least primary street) that is classified as a principal arterial (Waze: at least major highway) would be classified in Waze as a {{Major Highway}}.
 +
* a state highway (Waze: at least minor highway) that is classified as a major collector (Waze: at least primary street) would be classified in Waze as a {{Minor Highway}}.
 +
* a locally maintained road (Waze: at least street) that is classified as an other arterial (Waze: at least minor highway) would be classified in Waze as a {{Minor Highway}}.
 +
 +
If a road meets the criteria for multiple types, the highest of those types must be used, to satisfy every "at least" rule.</div>}}
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 +
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=== {{@|Highways}} ===
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 +
A '''highway''' is an arterial road.
 +
 +
Highways roads are the backbone of the traffic network. They serve a dual purpose:
 +
*to carry traffic over long distances, from one city to another, and
 +
*to carry traffic from collector roads to freeways, where applicable.
 +
 +
Several systems of numbered highways exist in the United States:
 +
*the Interstate Highway System
 +
*the United States Numbered Highways
 +
*various [[wikipedia:Numbered_highways_in_the_United_States#State_highways_and_other_similar_systems|State Highway systems]]
 +
*various County (or Parish) Highway systems, in some states
 +
 +
Waze's definition of "highways" includes Interstate, US and state highways, but it also includes all other roads that are classified as arterial roads under the FHWA functional classification lists maintained by state governments, even though they may not be part of any numbered highway system.
 +
 +
Functional classification of roads is determined more by how the roads are used than by how they are constructed, and the criteria are slightly different between urban and rural areas. Because of this, some urban roads may be classified as arterials and have highway types in Waze, even though they appear very similar to other non-highway roads. In using functional classification and numbered highway systems, the decision on which roads should be classified as highways rests ultimately with the governments that build and maintain the roads.
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Waze distinguishes three classes of highway: {{Freeway}}, {{Major Highway}}, and {{Minor Highway}}.
 +
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==== Freeway {{Freeway|&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;}} {{Anchor|Fwy|freeway|fwy}} {{@||Freeway}} ====
  
=Road Type Classifications:=
 
==Freeway [[Image:RoadBlue.png|180px]]==
 
 
[[Image:RoadPicN.jpg|right|400px]]
 
[[Image:RoadPicN.jpg|right|400px]]
Although it is currently listed under Highways, a freeway does not have to be a highway.
 
  
Freeways have strict classification rules.
+
A '''freeway''' is a highway designed for high speed traffic, with fully controlled access over entrance to, and exit from, the highway.
*Almost all US Interstates are Freeways (exceptions [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_gaps_in_Interstate_Highways#At-grade_intersections_and_traffic_lights Wikipedia Link])
+
 
*Multi-Lane, divided road (with rare exceptions [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_gaps_in_Interstate_Highways#Undivided_and_narrow_freeways Wikipedia link])
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Freeway is the highest functional class of road.
*No cross traffic.
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*No stop lights (except for ramp meters).
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*No stop signs.
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The following roads shall be classified as {{Freeway}}:
*No parking.
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*All '''Interstate Highways'''.
*No stopping (except for toll booths, freeway access metering, movable briges [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_gaps_in_Interstate_Highways#Movable_bridges Wikipedia link], and traffic congestion.)
+
**This includes all roads classified in FHWA's functional classification as '''Interstates'''.
*Highest speed limits. (relative to region)
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**This includes three-digit Interstate spurs and loops (e.g., I-610; I-585).
*Some have minimum speed limits.
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**This includes the [[wikipedia:List of gaps in Interstate Highways#At-grade intersections and traffic lights|few grade-intersected, undivided, and/or narrow portions of the Interstate Highway System]].
*Limited access
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**This does ''not'' include Interstate Business Loops and Business Spurs (e.g., I-69 Business Loop), unless they meet the standards for Other Freeways and Expressways defined below.
**Access restrictions vary by state but some typical restrictions are
+
*Roads classified in FHWA's functional classification as '''Other Freeways and Expressways''' which meet the criteria of a [[wikipedia:controlled-access highway|controlled-access highway]]:
***No pedestrians
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**No at-grade crossings.
***No bicycles
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**No at-grade intersections.
***No mopeds
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**No direct property access.
**Entrance ramps are typically designed with an acceleration zone so that cars can accelerate up to freeway speeds before merging into freeway traffic.
+
**No stop lights (except sometimes on ramps).
**Exit ramps are typically designed with a deceleration zone so that traffic can exit the freeway at freeway speeds without obstructing traffic, then have sufficient distance to slow down before any turns.
+
**No stop signs.
 +
**Except at the beginning or end of the controlled-access roadway, connected to other roads exclusively by [[Limited Access Interchange Style Guide|interchanges]]:
 +
***Entrance via ramps only, typically with acceleration zones.
 +
***Exit via ramps only, typically with deceleration zones.
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***Note: Many freeways continue as non-controlled-access roadways; the road should be set as Freeway until the point at which access becomes non-controlled.
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**Note: Some states refer to this class as '''Other Freeways'''. In these states, every road in this class is a Freeway.
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 +
For information on how to best layout freeways and their junctions, please review the section on [[Junction_Style_Guide#Highway.2FFreeway_Junctions|freeways]] in the [[Junction Style Guide]]. For specific guidelines in other countries refer to [[How_to_label_and_name_roads|this page for more information]].
 +
 
 +
==== Major Highway {{Major Highway|&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;}} {{Anchor|Major highway|major highway|MH}} {{@||Major Highway}} ====
 +
 
 +
[[Image:Maj-hwy.jpg|thumb|right|450px|A partially-limited-access roadway, or "expressway". Note the interchange to the left and the at-grade intersection to the right.]]
 +
 
 +
'''Principal arterials''' are the primary routes for traveling throughout the country, from one city to another, over long distances. Many principal arterials are freeways or expressways, but many others are not.
 +
 
 +
As a nationwide system, the United States Numbered Highways, or '''U.S. Highways''', system provides a direct links between regions not served by the Interstate Highway System, and as alternatives to Interstate travel in the case of heavy traffic or incident.
 +
 
 +
 
 +
The following roads are to be classified, at minimum, as {{Major Highway}}:
 +
*Roads classified in FHWA's functional classification as '''Principal Arterials''' or '''Other Principal Arterials'''.
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*Roads classified in FHWA's functional classifications as '''Other Freeways and Expressways''' ''which do not meet the criteria for Freeway''.
 +
**This includes partially-limited-access roadways (or "expressways"). These are roads that have a lot of the characteristics of freeways, but also have occasional at-grade intersections with other roads.
 +
**Note: Every partially-limited-access roadway is a Major Highway; this does not mean that every Major Highway must be partially-limited-access.
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**Note: "Expressway" is used as a shorthand term for partially-limited-access roads. This does not mean every road ''named'' "Expressway" is a Major Highway.
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**Note: Some states refer to this class as '''Other Freeways'''. In these states, every road in this class is a Freeway.
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*Roads in the '''United States Numbered Highways''' system (US Highways).
 +
**This includes Alternate (ALT), Bypass (BYP), Connector (CONN), Truck, and Scenic US Highways.
 +
**This does ''not'' include Business, Spur, and Loop US Highways.
 +
*Business routes (Spurs and Loops) in the Interstate Highway System (e.g., I-69 Business Loop).
 +
 
 +
==== Minor Highway {{Minor Highway|&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;}} {{Anchor|Minor highway|minor highway|mH|mh}} {{@||Minor Highway}} ====
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 +
'''Minor arterials''' (or '''other arterials''') are secondary routes for traveling between cities over moderately long distances. Minor or other arterials are classified in Waze as Minor Highways.
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 +
Each of the fifty states (along with the District of Columbia and some of the United States's overseas territories) has a numbered '''state highway system'''. Roads in these systems are designated and selected by their respective State Departments of Transportation as part of statewide networks of important travel links between cities and communities of those states. These roads, while of lesser national importance, are nevertheless essential for travel within the state.
 +
 
  
 +
The following roads are to be classified, at minimum, as {{Minor Highway}}:
 +
*Roads classified in FHWA's functional classification as '''Minor Arterials''' or '''Other Arterials'''.
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*Signed, numbered routes in '''state, D.C., and territorial highway systems'''.
 +
**This includes Alternate (ALT), Bypass (BYP), Connector (CONN), Truck, and Scenic state highways.
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**This includes Spur state highways when they are used to connect state highways with other state highways, US Highways, or Interstates; i.e., Spur highways which are used like Connector (CONN) highways.
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**This does ''not'' include Business (BUS), Loop, and other Spur state highways.
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*Business (BUS), Loop, and Spur US Highways.
  
<br style="clear: both" />
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Note: Not every state highway system is the same. Some state systems may be overinclusive, whether because of differing standards or because of political corruption and pork barrel spending; as such, your state may make exceptions where some lesser state highways are better represented by the Primary Street type. Contact your regional coordinator before making these decisions.
==Highways[[Image:Majorhighwayseg.png |150px]][[Image:RoadYell.png |150px]]==
 
Highways are typically numbered or named roads that can be followed to get from one city to another.  If the cities are in different states, it will likely be named as a US highway.  If they are in the same state, it will likely be named as a State Highway.  If they are in the same county, they may be named as a County Highway.  There are two main Highway labels in Waze, Major and Minor. Their use may depend on regional population or traffic densities.
 
  
One differentiation between Major and Minor is the design and use of the road.  A Major Highway is purpose built for the expedience of thru traffic.  A Minor Highway could have a diverse range of priority placed on the flow of thru traffic. 
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==== Ramps {{Ramp|&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;}} {{@||Ramps}} ====
*US Highways should typically have a Major Highway or Minor Highway road type. 
 
*State Highways differ by region.  In some states all State Highways deserve a Highway road type.  In others the “State Highway” term is used very loosely, or every road in a town may have a state highway namel.  In those cases many state highways will not be a highway road type.
 
*County Highways vary greatly, some may deserve a highway designation.
 
<br style="clear: both" />
 
  
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[[File:RoadPicN2.jpg|right|300px|RoadPicN2.jpg]] [[File:HBlue.png|right|300px|HBlue.png]]
  
===Major Highway[[Image:Majorhighwayseg.png |200px]]===
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The following are to be classified as {{Ramp}}.
[[Image:Maj-hwy.jpg|right|500px]]
 
Purposely built as a major throughway. 
 
*Higher speeds.  Speed limits should be near or equal to Interstate or Freeway speed limits in the same area.  (typically within 5-10mph)
 
*Multiple lanes in each direction. 
 
*Separated directions of travel. 
 
*Turning traffic is typically limited to specified turn lanes or freeway style ramps to minimize obstructions to thru traffic.
 
*Partially limited access with few minor streets intersecting with this road.  Intersections are most often with primary roads or other highways.
 
*Can have stoplights or freeway style interchanges. 
 
*No stop signs
 
*Pedestrian crossings may be limited. 
 
*Local business access is often restricted to frontage roads or other streets.
 
  
Typically roads with numerous side streets, parking lot accesses, residential driveways, low speed limits, undivided, or shared center turn lanes (suicide lanes) are not Major Highways.  
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*Roads which connect roadways to other roadways as part of an [[Limited Access Interchange Style Guide|interchange]]. This includes all freeway exits and entrances.
<br style="clear: both" />
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*Roads connecting freeways and highways with [[Rest areas]], parking areas, and service plazas (e.g., "to Service Area").
 +
*Jughandles.
 +
*Median U-turn Intersection (MUTI) and "Michigan left" segments.
 +
*J-turn (RCUT/"Superstreet") segments.
 +
*Displaced Left Turn (DLT) left turn segments.
  
===Minor Highway[[Image:RoadYell.png |200px]]===
+
The following are '''not''' to be classified as {{Ramp}}.
[[Image:Screen134.png|right|300px]]
 
While still a labeled route that can be followed to get from one city/town/neighborhood to another, routing of thru traffic is not always a priority in the street design. 
 
Some minor highways are built with a higher priority on through traffic, while other minor highways are nothing more than a label dropped onto existing residential streets.
 
  
Minor Highways vary widely from large multi-lane roads with stoplights and higher speed limits, to small residential streets with stops signs.
+
*[[At-grade connectors]], unless they fit into one of the exceptions (see article).
 +
*Turn lanes.
  
Some minor highways may zigzag thru an area with many turns on local streets.
+
Ramp names do not appear on the client application map, but do appear in the text for routing directions. Entrance and exit ramps often contain a lot of text which is duplicative of roads already in the area, so this text is suppressed until the user actually needs it. This is also the reason for using the ramp type for named MUTI and jughandle segments—the text is needed for effective navigation instructions but would needlessly clutter the ramp.
  
A Minor Highway thru the main street of a small town often retains focus on local access with pedestrian traffic and on street parking.
+
Information on how to lay out ramps and set the proper angles from the main road can be found in the [[Junction Style Guide]]. {{clear}}
  
As a good note, remember that in major construction zones for Highways under construction, often Waze will try to route you through the construction, as if its the only route, since it prefers highways. When a user turns off the highway notation in their app, remember, it will STOP routing on "Minor Highways." So if you label a "Major Road" a "Minor Highway," it will be INCREDIBLY detrimental to the users directions.
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===  {{@|Streets}} ===
<br style="clear: both" />
 
  
 +
The Street types are for local and short-distance travel. Street types are used at the beginning and end of long routes as well.
  
===Ramps[[Image:Ramp.png |200px]]===
 
[[Image:RoadPicN2.jpg|right|300px]]
 
[[Image:HBlue.png|right|300px]]
 
*All entrance or exits to freeways. 
 
*A proper freeway style ramp onto or off of a Highway. 
 
*A change of grade connector for any street type. 
 
*Not for at grade street connectors.
 
*Not for turn lanes.
 
*Roads connecting a highway with a rest/service/parking area should be treated as ramps as well and named accordingly (e.g. "Exit to Service Area").
 
<br style="clear: both" />
 
  
 +
==== Primary Street {{Primary Street|&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;}} {{Anchor|Primary street|primary street|PS|PS}} {{@||Primary Street}} ====
  
==Streets[[Image:Primary street.png|150px]][[Image:Street.png|150px]][[Image:Service road.png|150px]]==
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'''Collectors''' are roads used with medium-low traffic densities which are used to bring traffic from local streets to arterials and vice versa. Collectors are classified in Waze as Primary Streets.
Usually for local travel within a town.
 
<br style="clear: both" />
 
  
 +
Some states designate [[wikipedia:County highway|county routes]] which are important for travel within a county. These routes serve important functions in a short-distance capacity.
  
===Primary Street[[Image:Primary street.png|200px]]=== 
 
[[Image:RoadPicN3.jpg|right|300px]]
 
Major roads or boulevards used to get across a neighborhood or city.
 
*Usually given higher priority for right of way with traffic controls. 
 
*Primary streets may have less residential driveways. 
 
*A town’s “Main Street,” if it is not a highway, is typically a primary street. 
 
*In some regions “County Roads” are typically primary streets. 
 
A primary designation is very relative to population and traffic densities.  In the smallest rural town, a primary street may barely be wide enough for two cars heading opposite directions to pass each other.  In dense urban areas primary streets may need to be a divided road with multiple lanes of traffic in each direction having traffic controls at every intersection.
 
<br style="clear: both" />
 
  
 +
The following roads are to be classified, at minimum, as {{Primary Street}}:
 +
*Roads classified in FHWA's functional classification as '''Major Collectors''' or '''Minor Collectors''' and paved with a hard surface.
 +
*Signed, numbered '''county routes''' (and, in Louisiana, parish routes) paved with a hard surface.
 +
*Business (BUS) and Loop state highways, and Spur state highways which are not used as connectors, paved with a hard surface.
 +
*'''[[wikipedia:Frontage road|Frontage road]]s''' which serve as the means of access between freeways/expressways and surface streets, if not otherwise classified.
 +
**Some functional classification maps are not produced in high enough detail to determine the class of frontage roads. On maps that are produced in high detail, frontage roads are almost universally classified as Major Collectors or higher.
  
===Service road[[Image:Service road.png|200px]]===
 
[[Image:RoadPicN5b.jpg|right|300px]]
 
Also often known as a frontage road. 
 
*A smaller street found running alongside a limited access highway or other primary street. 
 
*Service roads allow local traffic to enter and exit driveways, parking lots, and intersecting streets without congesting thoroughfare traffic.
 
*(NOTE: Service Roads should NOT be confused with what is often called a "service alley".  Service Roads will not prevent routing.)
 
<br style="clear: both" />
 
  
===Street[[Image:Street.png|200px]]===
+
Unpaved roads – including gravel, macadam, and dirt roads – are considered on a regional basis. Check your [[Mapping resources/USA|state page]] or contact your regional coordinator.
 +
 
 +
Note: Some states or counties may designate county routes differently than others. Check your state's page for possible exceptions to this rule.
 +
{{clear}}
 +
 
 +
 
 +
As stated above, [[wikipedia:Frontage road|frontage road]]s should generally be set to at least {{Primary Street}}, if not marked as a higher type on a functional class map.
 +
 
 +
Many frontage roads are used as "feeder roads" or "access roads", often the primary or only means of entering and exiting a freeway. Setting these to the "street" type, as has been done in the past, has the potential to invalidate good routes which use freeways and major/minor highways. To ensure that routing works, always use at least "primary street" for frontage roads that are used in this way. It may be desirable to set the entire frontage road to the same type to achieve a more contiguous map appearance.
 +
{{clear}}
 +
 
 +
====Street {{Street|&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;}} {{Anchor|street|St|st}} {{@||Street}} ====
 +
 
 
[[Image:RoadPicN4.jpg|right|400px]]
 
[[Image:RoadPicN4.jpg|right|400px]]
*Any road that traffic will be routed onto. 
 
*At grade connectors & turn lanes when separated by enough distance from the streets that one is needed for proper GPS tracking.
 
<br style="clear: both" />
 
  
==Other==
+
Any road for public travel which does not meet the criteria for any other type shall be classified as a {{Street}}. Shown as "local roads" in some functional classification maps; not shown at all in others.
<br style="clear: both" />
+
{{clear}}
 +
 
 +
====  {{@|Service Road}} ====
 +
 
 +
{{mbox
 +
| type = warning
 +
| text = The Service Road type is no longer available. '''Use other road types for service roads.'''
 +
}}
 +
{{clear}}
  
 +
=== {{Anchor|FC cross reference}}  {{@|Quick reference chart}} ===
  
===Dirt[[Image:Service road.png|200px]]===
+
Refer to this chart to determine the road type of a given paved public road based on the functional class.
[[Image:RoadPicN6.jpg |right|300px]]
 
A road that is not paved
 
<br style="clear: both" />
 
  
 +
To use this chart, first determine the functional class of a road, and whether it is a signed, numbered highway in a particular highway system.
  
===Parking Lot Road[[Image:Service road.png|200px]]===
+
Where the column for the road's highway system and the row for the road's functional class meet, you will find the proper road type for that particular road.
[[Image:RoadPicN7.jpg |right|300px]]
 
Parking lots, along with other publicly accessible roads such as alleys that should not be used for traffic routing unless directly at the start or end point of a route. 
 
*Do not map the rows within parking lots because it clutters the map.
 
*Parking Lots roads have a transition penalty when exiting the Parking Lot roads.  This should prevent Waze from routing you through a Parking Lot as a shortcut.
 
*Use Parking Lot road type for all segments in the Parking Lot.
 
*The proper use of parking lot roads can also help to avoid automated traffic jam reports as well as Papyrus Map Problems related to Wazers driving in unmapped parking lots. http://www.waze.com/forum/viewtopic.php?f=10&t=13825&start=20#p117202
 
<br style="clear: both" />
 
  
===Private Road[[Image:Service road.png|200px]]===
+
A number of examples are given below the chart.
Private roads are useful for the following situations:
 
* Gated communities with controlled access
 
* Schools and Universities
 
* Military Bases
 
* Roads within apartment complexes and trailer parks
 
  
Private roads function in a similar way to Parking Lot roads using a transition penalty when leaving the Private Road.  This transition penalty to keep Waze from incorrectly routing Wazers through a private area as a shortcut.
 
  
When mapping Private roads, all of the road segments within the Private area should be of the Private Road type.  Private roads do not suppress automated traffic jams in the Waze application.
+
<div style="font-size:smaller">
<br style="clear: both" />
+
{| border="1" style="border-collapse:collapse; text-align:center"
 +
! scope="row" rowspan="2" colspan="2"|
 +
! colspan="8"| <big>Highway Systems</big>
 +
|-
 +
! Interstate
 +
! Interstate Business Loop/Spur
 +
! US Hwy (incl. some [[wikipedia:special routes|special routes]])
 +
! US Hwy BUS, SPUR, LOOP
 +
! State Hwy (incl. some special routes)
 +
! State Hwy BUS, SPUR{{ref label|a|a}}, LOOP
 +
! County Route
 +
! Locally-maintained
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
| ''example''
 +
| I-10 E
 +
| I-94 Business
 +
| US-190
 +
| US-460 Business
 +
| SR-23
 +
| SR-400 Loop
 +
| CR-15
 +
| Robertson St
 +
|-
 +
! scope="row" rowspan="8" style="width:28px"| <big>F<br>u<br>n<br>c<br>t<br>i<br>o<br>n<br>a<br>l<br> <br>C<br>l<br>a<br>s<br>s</big><!-- Temp placeholder -->
 +
| '''Interstate'''{{ref label|b|b}}||{{Freeway|Fw}}||n/a||n/a||n/a||n/a||n/a||n/a||n/a
 +
|-
 +
| '''Other Freeway'''{{ref label|c|c}}||n/a||{{Freeway|Fw}}||{{Freeway|Fw}}||{{Freeway|Fw}}||{{Freeway|Fw}}||{{Freeway|Fw}}||{{Freeway|Fw}}||{{Freeway|Fw}}
 +
|-
 +
| '''Other Expressway'''{{ref label|d|d}}||n/a||{{Major Highway|Major}}||{{Major Highway|Major}}||{{Major Highway|Major}}||{{Major Highway|Major}}||{{Major Highway|Major}}||{{Major Highway|Major}}||{{Major Highway|Major}}
 +
|-
 +
| '''Other Principal Arterial'''{{ref label|e|e}}||n/a||{{Major Highway|Major}}||{{Major Highway|Major}}||{{Major Highway|Major}}||{{Major Highway|Major}}||{{Major Highway|Major}}||{{Major Highway|Major}}||{{Major Highway|Major}}
 +
|-
 +
| '''Minor Arterial'''{{ref label|f|f}}||n/a||{{Major Highway|Major}}||{{Major Highway|Major}}||{{Minor Highway|Minor}}||{{Minor Highway|Minor}}||{{Minor Highway|Minor}}||{{Minor Highway|Minor}}||{{Minor Highway|Minor}}
 +
|-
 +
| '''Major Collector'''||n/a||{{Major Highway|Major}}||{{Major Highway|Major}}||{{Minor Highway|Minor}}||{{Minor Highway|Minor}}||{{Primary Street|PS}}||{{Primary Street|PS}}||{{Primary Street|PS}}
 +
|-
 +
| '''Minor Collector'''||n/a||{{Major Highway|Major}}||{{Major Highway|Major}}||{{Minor Highway|Minor}}||{{Minor Highway|Minor}}||{{Primary Street|PS}}||{{Primary Street|PS}}||{{Primary Street|PS}}
 +
|-
 +
| '''Local/not mapped'''||n/a||{{Major Highway|Major}}||{{Major Highway|Major}}||{{Minor Highway|Minor}}||{{Minor Highway|Minor}}||{{Primary Street|PS}}||{{Primary Street|PS}}||{{Street}}
 +
|}
 +
{{note|a|a}} When a state highway "SPUR" route is used to connect a state highway with another state highway, a US highway, or an Interstate (i.e., when it is used as a connector/CONN route), use the first state highway column.
 +
 
 +
{{note|b|b}} Also known as '''Principal Arterial - Interstate'''.
 +
 
 +
{{note|c|c}} Also known as '''Principal Arterial - Freeway'''.
 +
 
 +
{{note|d|d}} Also known as '''Principal Arterial - Expressway'''.
 +
 
 +
{{note|e|e}} Also known as '''Principal Arterial'''.
 +
 
 +
{{note|f|f}} Also known as '''Other Arterial'''.
 +
 
 +
 
 +
For example,
 +
* An Interstate Business Loop classified as a Minor Arterial is a {{Major Highway}}.
 +
* A US Highway classified as a Minor Arterial is a {{Major Highway}}.
 +
* A US Highway Spur route classified as a Minor Arterial is a {{Minor Highway}}.
 +
* A State Highway classified as an Other Freeway is a {{Freeway}}.
 +
* A State Highway classified as a Collector is a {{Minor Highway}}.
 +
* A County Route classified as a Minor Arterial is a {{Minor Highway}}.
 +
* A County Route classified as a Collector is a {{Primary Street}}
 +
* A locally-maintained road classified as an Other Principal Arterial is a {{Major Highway}}.
 +
* A locally-maintained road  classified as a Collector is a {{Primary Street}}.
 +
 
 +
 
 +
{| border="1" style="border-collapse:collapse;margin: 1em auto 1em auto; text-align:center"
 +
|+ '''Legend'''
 +
|-
 +
| {{Freeway|Fw}}||{{Freeway}}
 +
|-
 +
| {{Major Highway|Major}}||{{Major Highway}}
 +
|-
 +
| {{Minor Highway|Minor}}||{{Minor Highway}}
 +
|-
 +
| {{Primary Street|PS}}||{{Primary Street}}
 +
|-
 +
| {{Street|Street}}||{{Street}}
 +
|}
 +
</div>
 +
 
 +
==  {{@|Other drivable roads}} ==
 +
 
 +
 
 +
=== Dirt Road / 4X4 Trail {{Dirt Road / 4X4 Trail|&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;}} {{anchor|Dirt|Dirt Road|Dirt road|Dirt road / 4X4 trail|4X4 Trail|4X4 trail|4x4 Trail|4x4 trail|dirt road}} {{@||Dirt Road / 4X4 Trail}} ===
 +
 
 +
[[File:RoadPicN6.jpg|right|300px|RoadPicN6.jpg]]
 +
 
 +
The {{Dirt Road / 4X4 Trail}} type has the unique property that Waze users may ask not to be routed over it. Users may ask to avoid it for all through routing with the settings option "Dirt roads - Don't allow", or to avoid it for through routing longer than 300 m (984 ft) with the option "Dirt roads - Avoid long ones".
 +
 
 +
Because of this property, this type typically represents public side roads that some fraction of local drivers habitually avoid due to surface quality. In metropolitan or other urbanized regions, this generally means unpaved (dirt, gravel, crushed rock) roads, or roads in uncommonly poor condition by local standards. In other areas, roads with unpaved surfaces may be essential routes and thus necessarily set to other types such as Street, Primary Street, or even higher, as if they were paved.
 +
 
 +
Check your [[Mapping resources/USA|state page]] for details on whether your state follows unique guidelines for dirt roads, or contact your regional coordinator for further guidance. {{clear}}
 +
 
 +
=== Parking Lot Road {{PLR|&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;}} {{anchor|Parking lot road|PLR|plr|Plr}} {{@||Parking Lot Road}} ===
 +
 
 +
[[File:RoadPicN7.jpg|right|300px|RoadPicN7.jpg]] Parking lots, along with other publicly accessible roads such as '''alleys''' that should not be used for traffic routing unless directly at the start or end point of a route.
 +
 
 +
*Do not map the rows within parking lots because it clutters the map. See this additional page for [[Best map editing practice#Parking Lots|more details on how to map parking lots]].
 +
 
 +
{{mbox|type=caution|text=This section was updated {{As of |2015|01|14|df=us|lc=yes}} to clarify when to use {{PLR|PLR}} vs {{Private Road|Private Roads}}.}}
 +
 
 +
*Use {{Parking Lot Road}} type for all [[Best map editing practice#Parking Lots|necessary segments]] in the Parking Lot.
 +
*{{Parking Lot Road}} type should be used inside Apartment Complexes, Trailer Parks, Schools, and Universities unless it meets the criteria for Private Road found in the next section below.
 +
*{{Parking Lot Road|Parking Lot Roads}} have a [[Routing penalties|transition penalty]] when exiting the Parking Lot road segment. This should prevent Waze from routing you through a Parking Lot or an alley as a shortcut.
 +
* {{Parking Lot Road|Parking Lot Roads}} can be used to avoid "missing road" automated Map Problem reports.
 +
* {{Parking Lot Road|Parking Lot Roads}} can be used to prevent Waze from assuming drivers driving slowly or parked in the parking lot are in a traffic jam on the main road -- draw in the drivable portions of the parking lot that are near outside roadways.
 +
* Waze will not highlight slow speeds (automatically detected traffic jams) on {{Parking Lot Road|Parking Lot Roads}}
 +
 
 +
[http://www.waze.com/forum/viewtopic.php?f=10&t=13825&start=20#p117202 Additional information on this topic can be reviewed in the forums.] {{clear}}
 +
 
 +
Information on mapping a parking lot landmark "place" is covered [[Places#Parking Lot|here]].
 +
 
 +
=== Private Road {{Private Road|&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;}} {{anchor|Private road|private road|private|Private|PVT|PR|pr|pvt|Pvt}} {{@||Private Road}} ===
 +
 
 +
[[File:Pi gated-community1.jpg|right|300px|Pi gated-community1.jpg]]{{Private Road|Private roads}} are useful for the following situations:
 +
 
 +
*Gated communities with controlled access
 +
*Schools and Universities (gates / guard)
 +
*Businesses with controlled access (gates / guard)
 +
 
 +
However, using private roads in some of these situations may require more complex mapping as covered in the article [[Private Installations]]. Be sure to read through that article before setting a whole neighborhood to all private roads.
 +
 
 +
As with {{Parking Lot Road|Parking Lot Roads}}, a route over a {{Private Road}} will incur a [[Routing penalties|transition penalty]] upon leaving it for another road type. This transition penalty keeps Waze from routing Wazers through a private area as a shortcutUnlike {{Parking Lot Road|Parking Lot Roads}}, however, {{Private Road|Private Roads}} do not suppress automated traffic-jam detection.
 +
 
 +
* Never use the {{Private Road}} type for unrestricted public roads
 +
* Do not use the {{Private Road}} type to try to force waze to route around slow (damaged or under construction) public roads. Talk to a routing expert to find out if there are any good solutions.
 +
* {{Private Road}} may be used for a public street that has a legally enforceable sign for local traffic only.
 +
* Waze handles {{Private Road|Private Roads}} similarly to how it handles {{Parking Lot Road|Parking Lot Roads}}, but not exactly the same.
 +
** Similarity: Waze routing adds a penalty to a route that goes from a {{Private Road}} segment to a segment of a different type.
 +
** Difference: Waze will highlight traffic slowdowns on {{Private Road|Private Roads}}.
 +
{{clear}}
 +
 
 +
==  {{@|Non-drivable roads}} ==
  
==Non-drivable==
 
 
'''Your car should not be here!'''
 
'''Your car should not be here!'''
*These may be useful for points of reference when navigating such as seeing on a map where a turn is in relation to a railroad crossing. 
 
*When Waze users travel on a non-vehicle route such as a bicyclist or mass-transit rider, marking these routes can be useful to explain the GPS traces that result. 
 
*If a base map scan has non-drivable routes on it, it is important to mark these to prevent traffic routing onto them.
 
*Non-drivable routes should not have any type of junction with a drivable road.  When crossing a drivable road, the non-drivable road should be bridged across and set at a different level.
 
<br style="clear: both" />
 
  
 +
*{{As of|2015|4}} the Waze app is intended only for drivers of motor vehicles, and Waze has no plans ever to support any other application.  In fact, cyclists and pedestrians who use Waze near drivable roads can damage Waze's speed and traffic database! '''Editors should not map <u>any</u> road type for the sole purpose of encouraging non-driving Wazers.'''
 +
*It may be useful to map certain non-drivable roads as navigational references if they are '''visually obvious to drivers''', for example by showing where a turn lies in relation to a railroad crossing (use the Railroad type) or a major Rails-to-Trails right-of-way (use the Pedestrian Boardwalk type).
 +
*If the GPS Points layer clearly shows frequent improper Wazing on a non-vehicle route near drivable roads, marking this route with a non-drivable road type can prevent damage to Waze's speed and traffic database.  Do not, however, use the Walking Trail type for this purpose.
 +
*The Walking Trail road type, although listed as non-drivable, is fully routable and should only be used by experts in very limited cases.
 +
*{{As of|2015|6}}, the non-drivable road types of Pedestrian Boardwalk, Stairway and Runway/Taxiway should '''not have any type of junction with a drivable road'''.  When crossing drivable roads, these non-drivable road types should be bridged across without a junction and set at a different elevation.  ''Note:  this guidance is subject to change.''
 +
* ''It is OK to junction drivable roads with the Railroad type.'' See specific details in the Railroad section later on this page.
 +
*{{Red|Walking Trails, and other non-drivable road type which are visible in the app, can cause significant routing issues.}} If a walking trail (even when not connected to any other drivable segment) is closest to the latitude and longitude of the search result, the routing server will route you to the spot on the segment closest to that walking trail.<br/><br/>In the sketch below, if you assume the Place target is a latitude and longitude returned by a Google search result, you would think that the actual destination would be the parking lot segment because it is the closest reachable/connected segment to the target. But it won't be. The actual destination will be where the green spot is, because the closest segment to the latitude and longitude is the walking trail, and the closest Waze can route to the walking trail is to where the green spot is.
 +
 +
[[File:Walking trail dest.png|center|Walking trail dest.png]]
 +
 +
{{clear}}
 +
 +
 +
 +
===  {{@|Emergency Vehicle and DOT Service Roads}} ===
 +
 +
[[File:Emergency.jpg|right|300px|Emergency.jpg]] "Emergency and Authorized Vehicles Only" and DOT Service Roads are to be treated as Non-drivable roads. These are found primarily through the median of divided highways to connect opposite direction lanes. If mapped, they should not be connected to any drivable road, with properties set to road type Private Road, and lock the segment at as high a rank as possible, up to rank 5. {{clear}}
 +
 +
===  {{@|Walking Trails}} ===
 +
 +
<!-- [[File:RoadPicN9.jpg|right|300px|RoadPicN9.jpg]] THIS FIGURE OF A PLEASANT LEAFY WALKING TRACK COMMENTED OUT UNTIL A MORE APPROPRIATE IMAGE CAN BE FOUND. --DwarfLord, June 6 2015 -->
 +
 +
{{mbox|type=caution|text=This section is new {{As of |2015|05|24|df=us|lc=yes}}.  For details, please
 +
see the [http://www.waze.com/forum/viewtopic.php?f=276&t=98949 forum discussion].}}
 +
 +
Use Walking Trails only with assistance from an expert in Walking Trails. They should only be used in rare cases. Walking Trails may have strange side effects on nearby routing.  Never use the Walking Trail road type for ordinary hiking paths or bike paths. Most hiking and bicycling paths should not be on the map at all.
 +
 +
The WME lists the Walking Trail road type as non-drivable.  However, {{as of|2015|5|lc=yes}}, Walking Trails are fully routable and even support Waze House Numbers.  Waze treats them in some ways like "Dirt road / 4X4 Trail" but displays them differently.  Historically, editors have disconnected Walking Trails to make sure Waze doesn't route drivers over them.  This doesn't always work as desired. If a disconnected Walking Trail comes closer to a destination than any other road, Waze may route drivers to a location nearer to the Walking Trail than to the destination.  This problem can be severe for Walking Trails passing close to many destinations in a dense neighborhood.  '''Connected or not, the Walking Trail type should never be used where effects on local routing are not desired.'''
 +
 +
The name "Walking Trail" suggests that Waze wants to support pedestrians and cyclists.  However, {{as of|2015|4|lc=yes}}, Waze focuses on drivers of motor vehicles and has no plans to encourage or support any other application.  In fact, pedestrians and cyclists using the Waze app may damage Waze.  By Wazing at speeds different from nearby traffic, they can create false traffic indications and even influence Waze's records of average road and turn speeds.
 +
 +
Because of this effect, '''editors should not map Walking Trails, or any other road type, for the sole purpose of encouraging non-driving Wazers.'''  See the descriptions of other non-drivable road types for recommended applications of those types.
 +
 +
If the GPS Points layer shows clearly that pedestrians and cyclists already use Waze on a path or trail that lies parallel to a drivable road, then, {{as of|2015|5|lc=yes}}, the path may be mapped with a Pedestrian Boardwalk.  Doing so will limit the damage these Wazers would otherwise cause to the road's speed data.  Such paths should only be mapped once it is clear Wazers regularly use them.
 +
 +
====  {{@|Applications}} ====
 +
 +
In rare cases, connected Walking Trails can bring drivers to destinations where otherwise Waze might fail to offer the best route.  For example:
 +
 +
*A concert pavilion in an urban park accessed by a pedestrian path from a distant parking lot.
 +
 +
*A train station reachable from either side of the tracks but with no drivable road across them.
 +
 +
*A destination addressed on a non-drivable footpath.
 +
 +
A connected Walking Trail may be used to route drivers to such destinations.  If the Walking Trail goes through from one drivable road to another, ensure that outgoing turn restrictions are red to disallow through routing via the Walking Trail.  Lock the Walking Trail as this is uncommon usage that may puzzle other editors.
 +
 +
Orientation or destination applications involving foot or bicycle paths that do not require routing, such as marking where an obvious bicycle path crosses a road or where a trailhead is located, should not use the Walking Trail type. Use Pedestrian Boardwalks, Stairways, or Point Places as appropriate.
 +
 +
====  {{@|Naming}} ====
 +
 +
If destinations are addressed using House Numbers on a Walking Trail, it is essential that the Walking Trail's name and city fields be set accordingly so that routing to the addresses will work.  For other routing situations, Walking Trails should be named to alert drivers that they must leave their car.  For example, a Walking Trail connecting the two sides of a train station may be named "Station Access Footpath".
 +
{{clear}}
 +
 +
=== {{@|Pedestrian Boardwalks}} ===
 +
{{Pedestrian Boardwalk|&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;}}[[File:RoadPicN10.jpg|right|300px|RoadPicN10.jpg]] {{clear}}
  
===Walking Trails[[Image:Service road.png|200px]]===
+
=== {{@|Stairway}}  ===
[[Image:RoadPicN9.jpg |right|300px]]
+
{{Stairway|&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;}}
Also bike trails
+
[[File:RoadPicN11.jpg|right|300px|RoadPicN11.jpg]] {{clear}}
<br style="clear: both" />
 
  
 +
===  {{@|Railroad}} ===
  
===Pedestrian Boardwalks[[Image:Service road.png|200px]]===
+
{{mbox
[[Image:RoadPicN10.jpg|right|300px]]
+
| type = important
<br style="clear: both" />
+
| text = The guidelines below have been updated to reflect new standards on naming of railroads as of June 28th, 2016.
 +
}}
  
 +
[[File:RailroadTracksVanishingPoint.jpg|right|300px|RoadPicN11.jpg]]
 +
The {{Railroad}} road type serves three purposes in Waze.  First, it provides drivers with visual orientation relative to railroad and light-rail tracks.  More importantly, in the common case where passenger-carrying tracks lie parallel with roads, mapping the tracks allows Waze to recognize spurious speed data from people Wazing on the train and prevent it from corrupting speed data for the adjacent road. Finally, when a railroad crosses a drivable road segment at grade (same elevation) the routing server can better determine delays at that crossing.{{clear}}
  
===Stairway[[Image:Service road.png|200px]]===
+
Use the following guidelines when '''mapping''' railroad segments:
[[Image:RoadPicN11.jpg|right|300px]]
+
* '''Do NOT''' enter a name for the railroad segment unless the tracks are historical in nature, a major landmark, or a routine destination for Wazers and your local state/regional wiki guidelines allow for such naming. The Waze app now renders railroad tracks as such so naming serves little purpose any longer. (See more below on Naming railroad segments.)
<br style="clear: both" />
+
* Always select "None" for the city name. This avoids [[City smudge|city smudging]].
 +
* Lock the segment at L2.
 +
* Do not map railroads below ground, as they do not serve any of the three purposes outlined above. This is especially true in urban areas where underground rail lines are common, and their appearance on the map would be confusing to drivers.
 +
* Set the elevation just as you would a drivable segment. When tracks junction a road on the ground, the Elevation should be set to Ground.
 +
* Create junctions between drivable roads and railroads.{{ref label|rr|rr}}
 +
* Set railroad to 2-way directionality
 +
* When mapping railroad tracks, focus on those near drivable roads.
 +
* Map rail yards simply, with one railroad segment along either edge of the yard's tracks.
 +
* Map industrial spurs only if they cross drivable roads.
 +
* Do not map '''every''' piece of parallel track, such as in sidings or yards, or industrial spurs that do not cross any roads. Your work may otherwise be seen as clutter, much like mapping every parking lot row.
 +
* Multiple parallel lines at crossings:
 +
** At most crossings, there should be only one railroad segment mapped and no more than two parallel railroads mapped at any crossing.
 +
** Parallel lines are to be at least 5m apart
 +
** In general, there is no reason to have multiple lines mapped. When not at a crossing, even four parallel lines can be easily mapped as a single railroad segment in Waze.
 +
* Keep segment lengths under 10,000 meters – the longer the segment length, the more sluggish the editor is to respond to changes.
 +
* {{Red|Do not map railroads using a drivable road type}} (streets, primary streets, etc.); it could be a hazard to human life if drivers were routed to them.
  
 +
<small>{{note|rr|rr}} ''Note: The routing server will properly account for delays at railroad crossings through a segment without a junction. However, with a junction, the historical data for the rail crossing will be more accurate.''</small>
  
===Railroad[[Image:Service road.png|200px]]===
+
Use the following guidelines when '''naming''' railroad segments, only if allowed by your local wiki guidelines:
Trains, Light Rail (does not appear in Waze client)
+
* For urban rapid transit and light rail systems you may optionally use the name of the transit authority and the name of the line, separated by a hyphen (e.g., "MBTA - Green Line", "RTA - Riverfront Streetcar").
<br style="clear: both" />
+
** If a system has only one line, of course, use its name alone (e.g., "Detroit People Mover").
 +
** If multiple lines share the same track or run on parallel tracks, include all lines (e.g., "Metro Rail - Red/Purple Lines").
 +
** However, if a rapid transit system is so complex that including all line names would lead to an absurd result on some railroad segments, use the name of the system alone (e.g., "BART", "MTA") throughout the system.
 +
* Federal DOT Railroad GIS: http://fragis.fra.dot.gov/Apps/GISFRASafety/
 +
<br>
 +
For specific recommendations in other countries outside the United States, please see the [[Road types and names|entry for the country in question here]]. {{clear}}
  
===Runway/Taxiway[[Image:Service road.png|200px]]===
+
=== Runway/Taxiway[[File:Service road.png|200px|Service road.png]] {{Anchor|Runway|Taxiway}} {{@||Runway/Taxiway}}===
For aircraft at airports
 
  
== '''Types of segments (Roundabouts)''' [[Image:Round.png |50px]]==
+
[[File:Runways.png|right|300px]]Airport runways and private airstrips may be mapped using the Runway/Taxiway road type. The Runway/Taxiway type is for display only and must never connect to drivable road segments. If a drivable road and a runway cross, set the [[elevation]] of the road below that of the runway and ensure there is no connection. Draw each runway as a single segment and lock it to prevent lower-ranking editors from attaching a road. Do not form junctions where runways cross each other.
<br style="clear: both" />
+
 
 +
Name each runway using the word ''Runway'' and the runway designations with the lower number first and a hyphen between runway numbers (e.g., "Runway 16R-34L".)  <!-- The preferred airport identifier is the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Air_Transport_Association_airport_code IATA] [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_airports 3-letter code], for example "SFO", "LAX", "JFK", etc. If the airport in question is not included in that list, use the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Civil_Aviation_Organization_airport_code ICAO] [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Civil_Aviation_Organization_airport_code#Prefixes 4-letter code] instead. If the airport is not included in that list use the [http://www.faa.gov/air_traffic/publications/atpubs/lid/lidhme.htm FAA identifier]. -->  For the "City" field of runway segments, check "None" to avoid any chance of [[City smudge|city smudging]].  {{clear}}
 +
 
 +
Despite its title, the Runway/Taxiway road type should never be used for an aircraft taxiway because it would render the same as a runway and confuse the display. Taxiways not intended for frequent access by street vehicles should not be mapped at all with any road type. Taxiways that do commonly serve street vehicles as well as aircraft, for example at [http://www.waze.com/editor/?zoom=5&lat=38.68054&lon=-120.98836&env=usa&layers=389 fly-in communities], may be mapped as Streets provided they remain disconnected from any runway.
 +
{{clear}}
 +
 
 +
=== {{@|Ferry}} ===
 +
{{mbox
 +
| type = important
 +
| text = {{As of|2016|alt= Prior to 2016}} the Ferry Road type was not to be used. Since that time, there have been changes to the [[Routing server]] that allow the use of the Ferry Road type.
 +
}}
 +
{{clear}}
 +
 
 +
The Ferry road type should only be used where a road crosses a body of water through the use of an automotive ferry. For more on how to map ferries see [[Ferries/USA]]. The Ferry Road type is useful because it causes the Waze App to display a "ferry" symbol for routes that include a {{Ferry}} segment.
 +
 
 +
The Ferry road type is treated by the [[Routing server]] as a minor highway.The speed for the ferry road type is fixed at a very slow speed typical of watercraft, and not estimated from user speeds.
 +
 
 +
{{mbox|type=important|text=If the ferry you are working on crosses an area well covered with GPS traces, OR [[Wikipedia:List_of_HSC_ferry_routes| travels at higher than normal speeds]], please notify your [[Regional Coordinator]]. '''Additionally, if you have issues with routes passing thru a ferry segment, please contact your [[Regional Coordinator]].'''}}
 +
 
 +
== Roundabouts [[Image:Round.png |50px]] ==
 +
{{clear}}
 
[[Image:RoadPicN8.jpg |right|300px]]  
 
[[Image:RoadPicN8.jpg |right|300px]]  
  
Roundabouts have few principals:
+
Roundabouts have few principles:
  
 
The first one, each node on the roundabout can only be connected to no more than one segment.
 
The first one, each node on the roundabout can only be connected to no more than one segment.
  
 
Each connection has a spectrum that exists in order to notify the Client on how to define the message (Go straight, exit through the 2nd / 3rd / 4th exit).
 
Each connection has a spectrum that exists in order to notify the Client on how to define the message (Go straight, exit through the 2nd / 3rd / 4th exit).
<br style="clear: both" />
+
{{clear}}
  
 
[[Image:Round2.png |right|200px]]
 
[[Image:Round2.png |right|200px]]
  
Each connection has a spectrum that exists in order to notify the Client on how to define the message (Go straight, exit through the 2nd / 3rd / 4th exit).
+
The system will include the radius border from the center and notify the user accordingly.
 +
 
 +
For more information on when to create a Roundabout or a loop instead, please review the [[Junction Style Guide]].<br/>
 +
For information on what type of road to set a Roundabout to, please review [[Creating_and_Editing_a_roundabout#Road_Type|Creating and Editing a Roundabout]]
 +
{{clear}}
 +
 
 +
== {{@|Special case roads not covered}} ==
 +
There are a number of other types of roadways and lane types which are not directly covered with the current options above. In some cases there are plans to add some of these special cases, but in the mean time the following guidelines are the best that can be done with the current settings.
 +
 
 +
 
 +
=== {{@|Bus or cab only lanes}} ===
 +
When a road or lane is designated for bus or cab use only, mark that road segment(s) as a '''Private Road''' to prevent the Waze router from using that segment(s) for general traffic, since the majority of the users will not be able to use that lane. It is also advisable to set the turn restrictions to prevent turns into that segment(s), but permit turns exiting the segment.
 +
 
 +
If a road is one-way, but allows bus or cab traffic to flow the other direction, leave the road as one-way with the normal flow of traffic. There is no need to create a second road traveling the opposite direction for the bus and cab-only traffic.
 +
 
  
The system will include the radius border from the center and notify the user accordingly.
+
=== {{@|Driveways}} ===
<br style="clear: both" />
+
Many residents of urban communities have very short driveways between the named road that they live on and the garage or carport on their property. In general these very short segments should not be mapped, because they have no name, would clutter the map in the client app, take a lot of time to draw, and would greatly increase the overall size of the Waze mapping database with very little return.
  
==Legend==
+
In the case of very long driveways, it may helpful to a driver to see the driveway mapped on the client app or even necessary for Waze to determine how to reach the destination. In those cases it may be prudent to add a road. See the article on [[Driveways]] for more information.
[[Image:Tbl.png|720px]]
 
<br style="clear: both" />
 
  
==See Also==
+
== {{@|See Also}} ==
[[Road Naming (USA)]]<br>
+
[[Road names/USA]]<br>
[[How to label and name roads (United Kingdom)]]<br>
+
[[Junction Style Guide]]<br>
 +
[[United Kingdom/Roads]]<br>
  
 
[[Category:USA]]
 
[[Category:USA]]
 +
[[Category:Review redirects]]
 +
[[Category:Style Guides]]

Latest revision as of 03:27, 15 August 2016

The contents of this page were completely revamped starting 19 April 2014, to incorporate an entirely new set of guidelines for map editing. All US editors should familiarize themselves with the contents of this page. Please see this topic for details.
This page was last revamped on 14 January 2015. See discussion for possible links to related forum discussions.

Road types in the United States can be divided into three categories: public roads, other drivable roads, and non-drivable roads.

Public road types in Waze are determined by the FHWA functional classification of the road and, where applicable, by the highway system to which the road belongs.

Some of the guidance for Road types/USA may have specific localized adjustments for your local area. Be sure to familiarize yourself with these differences through the Mapping resources/USA/States page.


Overview link to this section

A hybrid system link to this section

Road types in the United States are determined through a hybrid system of FHWA functional classification and U.S., state, and sometimes county highway systems. These systems work together to create a harmonious Waze map with excellent routing characteristics. Neither of these two facets of the road type system should be considered sufficient on its own, without the other. The road type guidance has been carefully crafted to join these two systems into one single contiguous Waze road type system.

Functional classification link to this section

Functional classifications (FC) are determined using a set of criteria selected by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). These criteria include not only the physical attributes of the road but also efficiency of travel, number of access points, speed limits, route spacing, actual usage, and continuity. This can lead to quite different classifications for roads that appear similar. For example, a six-lane divided road in an urbanized area may be a Collector (Primary Street); a two-lane road through the middle of a town may be a principal arterial (Major Highway).

Functional classification is a national standard, but functional classification maps are published by state departments of transportation. Links to functional classification maps for each state can be found on the USA functional classification page.

Highway systems link to this section

The Interstate Highway System (formally, the Dwight D. Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways) is a nationwide network of freeways designated by Congress and administered by the FHWA and AASHTO, a nationwide organization of state departments of transportation with governmental support. The system facilitates high-speed travel throughout the nation.

The United States Numbered Highways, or U.S. Highways, system is a nationwide integrated network of roads also designated by Congress and administered by the FHWA and AASHTO. While many of the routes in this system have been superseded by the Interstate Highway System, they remain important as direct links between regions not served by the new system, and as alternatives to Interstate travel in the case of heavy traffic or incident.

Each of the fifty states (along with the District of Columbia and some of the United States's overseas territories) has a numbered state highway system. These systems are designated and administered by their respective state legislatures and departments of transportation as statewide networks of important travel links between cities and communities of those states. The roads in these systems, while of lesser national importance, are nevertheless essential for travel within the state.

In addition to their state highway systems, some states designate county routes which are important for travel within a county. These routes serve important functions in a short-distance capacity.

Importance of road types link to this section

Road types are important for both routing and map display:

  1. When planning a route, major roads will sometimes get priority over smaller roads.
    • For longer routes, some lower road types will often be ignored outright in favor of higher-type roads.
    • Since freeways are given the highest priority of all, having other high-type roads is necessary to provide viable alternatives to the routing server in case freeways are clogged with traffic.
  2. When viewing the map, more important roads should appear at the far zoom levels. Without proper types, the zoomed out display can be misleading.

The  Freeway  and  Ramp  road types each have their own special rules. The  Major Highway ,  Minor Highway , and  Primary Street  types are designated using a set of minimum criteria, as explained below.

Exceptions

Occasionally, if deemed necessary for proper routing, a particular road's type may be set higher than as prescribed in these rules. If a road has a higher type than set forth in these rules, there may be a reason for it.

Because the freeway exit is signed to the state route at the bottom of the image, and exiting traffic must use the road on the left to reach it, this road has been given the Major Highway type.

One common reason for a road to be set to a higher type is if that road is a connecting road between two roads with higher types. Promotion of a connecting road is only warranted if the road is signed from one road to the other. For example, a freeway exit may be signed as to a particular highway, but the only way to get to that highway from the exit ramps is over a lesser road. Where such connections are supported by signage, the road type of the connecting road should match the lower of the two roads that it connects, up to major highway (In the USA a road may only ever be set to freeway if it meets the criteria of the Freeway section). Promotion of connecting roads preserves routing continuity and prevents Waze from pruning out valid routes.

In rare cases, a particular road may require a lower type than as prescribed in these rules. Contact your regional coordinator before lowering the type of any road past the bounds of the rules.

Special rules are used to determine the road types of roundabouts and at-grade connectors.

Road types do not affect naming. See Road Naming (USA).

Before editing link to this section

Be sure that you are completely familiar with the articles on:

Public roads link to this section

Public roads are those who can be driven by anyone. Naturally, they are by far the most important roads on the Waze map.


Public roads are designated by a series of minimum criteria.

If a road meets any one criterion for a type, the road must be at least that type.

For example,

  • a county highway (Waze: at least primary street) that is classified as a principal arterial (Waze: at least major highway) would be classified in Waze as a  Major Highway .
  • a state highway (Waze: at least minor highway) that is classified as a major collector (Waze: at least primary street) would be classified in Waze as a  Minor Highway .
  • a locally maintained road (Waze: at least street) that is classified as an other arterial (Waze: at least minor highway) would be classified in Waze as a  Minor Highway .
If a road meets the criteria for multiple types, the highest of those types must be used, to satisfy every "at least" rule.


Highways link to this section

A highway is an arterial road.

Highways roads are the backbone of the traffic network. They serve a dual purpose:

  • to carry traffic over long distances, from one city to another, and
  • to carry traffic from collector roads to freeways, where applicable.

Several systems of numbered highways exist in the United States:

  • the Interstate Highway System
  • the United States Numbered Highways
  • various State Highway systems
  • various County (or Parish) Highway systems, in some states

Waze's definition of "highways" includes Interstate, US and state highways, but it also includes all other roads that are classified as arterial roads under the FHWA functional classification lists maintained by state governments, even though they may not be part of any numbered highway system.

Functional classification of roads is determined more by how the roads are used than by how they are constructed, and the criteria are slightly different between urban and rural areas. Because of this, some urban roads may be classified as arterials and have highway types in Waze, even though they appear very similar to other non-highway roads. In using functional classification and numbered highway systems, the decision on which roads should be classified as highways rests ultimately with the governments that build and maintain the roads.

Waze distinguishes three classes of highway:  Freeway ,  Major Highway , and  Minor Highway .


Freeway            link to this section

RoadPicN.jpg

A freeway is a highway designed for high speed traffic, with fully controlled access over entrance to, and exit from, the highway.

Freeway is the highest functional class of road.


The following roads shall be classified as  Freeway :

  • All Interstate Highways.
    • This includes all roads classified in FHWA's functional classification as Interstates.
    • This includes three-digit Interstate spurs and loops (e.g., I-610; I-585).
    • This includes the few grade-intersected, undivided, and/or narrow portions of the Interstate Highway System.
    • This does not include Interstate Business Loops and Business Spurs (e.g., I-69 Business Loop), unless they meet the standards for Other Freeways and Expressways defined below.
  • Roads classified in FHWA's functional classification as Other Freeways and Expressways which meet the criteria of a controlled-access highway:
    • No at-grade crossings.
    • No at-grade intersections.
    • No direct property access.
    • No stop lights (except sometimes on ramps).
    • No stop signs.
    • Except at the beginning or end of the controlled-access roadway, connected to other roads exclusively by interchanges:
      • Entrance via ramps only, typically with acceleration zones.
      • Exit via ramps only, typically with deceleration zones.
      • Note: Many freeways continue as non-controlled-access roadways; the road should be set as Freeway until the point at which access becomes non-controlled.
    • Note: Some states refer to this class as Other Freeways. In these states, every road in this class is a Freeway.

For information on how to best layout freeways and their junctions, please review the section on freeways in the Junction Style Guide. For specific guidelines in other countries refer to this page for more information.

Major Highway            link to this section

A partially-limited-access roadway, or "expressway". Note the interchange to the left and the at-grade intersection to the right.

Principal arterials are the primary routes for traveling throughout the country, from one city to another, over long distances. Many principal arterials are freeways or expressways, but many others are not.

As a nationwide system, the United States Numbered Highways, or U.S. Highways, system provides a direct links between regions not served by the Interstate Highway System, and as alternatives to Interstate travel in the case of heavy traffic or incident.


The following roads are to be classified, at minimum, as  Major Highway :

  • Roads classified in FHWA's functional classification as Principal Arterials or Other Principal Arterials.
  • Roads classified in FHWA's functional classifications as Other Freeways and Expressways which do not meet the criteria for Freeway.
    • This includes partially-limited-access roadways (or "expressways"). These are roads that have a lot of the characteristics of freeways, but also have occasional at-grade intersections with other roads.
    • Note: Every partially-limited-access roadway is a Major Highway; this does not mean that every Major Highway must be partially-limited-access.
    • Note: "Expressway" is used as a shorthand term for partially-limited-access roads. This does not mean every road named "Expressway" is a Major Highway.
    • Note: Some states refer to this class as Other Freeways. In these states, every road in this class is a Freeway.
  • Roads in the United States Numbered Highways system (US Highways).
    • This includes Alternate (ALT), Bypass (BYP), Connector (CONN), Truck, and Scenic US Highways.
    • This does not include Business, Spur, and Loop US Highways.
  • Business routes (Spurs and Loops) in the Interstate Highway System (e.g., I-69 Business Loop).

Minor Highway            link to this section

Minor arterials (or other arterials) are secondary routes for traveling between cities over moderately long distances. Minor or other arterials are classified in Waze as Minor Highways.

Each of the fifty states (along with the District of Columbia and some of the United States's overseas territories) has a numbered state highway system. Roads in these systems are designated and selected by their respective State Departments of Transportation as part of statewide networks of important travel links between cities and communities of those states. These roads, while of lesser national importance, are nevertheless essential for travel within the state.


The following roads are to be classified, at minimum, as  Minor Highway :

  • Roads classified in FHWA's functional classification as Minor Arterials or Other Arterials.
  • Signed, numbered routes in state, D.C., and territorial highway systems.
    • This includes Alternate (ALT), Bypass (BYP), Connector (CONN), Truck, and Scenic state highways.
    • This includes Spur state highways when they are used to connect state highways with other state highways, US Highways, or Interstates; i.e., Spur highways which are used like Connector (CONN) highways.
    • This does not include Business (BUS), Loop, and other Spur state highways.
  • Business (BUS), Loop, and Spur US Highways.

Note: Not every state highway system is the same. Some state systems may be overinclusive, whether because of differing standards or because of political corruption and pork barrel spending; as such, your state may make exceptions where some lesser state highways are better represented by the Primary Street type. Contact your regional coordinator before making these decisions.

Ramps            link to this section

RoadPicN2.jpg
HBlue.png

The following are to be classified as  Ramp .

  • Roads which connect roadways to other roadways as part of an interchange. This includes all freeway exits and entrances.
  • Roads connecting freeways and highways with Rest areas, parking areas, and service plazas (e.g., "to Service Area").
  • Jughandles.
  • Median U-turn Intersection (MUTI) and "Michigan left" segments.
  • J-turn (RCUT/"Superstreet") segments.
  • Displaced Left Turn (DLT) left turn segments.

The following are not to be classified as  Ramp .

Ramp names do not appear on the client application map, but do appear in the text for routing directions. Entrance and exit ramps often contain a lot of text which is duplicative of roads already in the area, so this text is suppressed until the user actually needs it. This is also the reason for using the ramp type for named MUTI and jughandle segments—the text is needed for effective navigation instructions but would needlessly clutter the ramp.

Information on how to lay out ramps and set the proper angles from the main road can be found in the Junction Style Guide.

Streets link to this section

The Street types are for local and short-distance travel. Street types are used at the beginning and end of long routes as well.


Primary Street            link to this section

Collectors are roads used with medium-low traffic densities which are used to bring traffic from local streets to arterials and vice versa. Collectors are classified in Waze as Primary Streets.

Some states designate county routes which are important for travel within a county. These routes serve important functions in a short-distance capacity.


The following roads are to be classified, at minimum, as  Primary Street :

  • Roads classified in FHWA's functional classification as Major Collectors or Minor Collectors and paved with a hard surface.
  • Signed, numbered county routes (and, in Louisiana, parish routes) paved with a hard surface.
  • Business (BUS) and Loop state highways, and Spur state highways which are not used as connectors, paved with a hard surface.
  • Frontage roads which serve as the means of access between freeways/expressways and surface streets, if not otherwise classified.
    • Some functional classification maps are not produced in high enough detail to determine the class of frontage roads. On maps that are produced in high detail, frontage roads are almost universally classified as Major Collectors or higher.


Unpaved roads – including gravel, macadam, and dirt roads – are considered on a regional basis. Check your state page or contact your regional coordinator.

Note: Some states or counties may designate county routes differently than others. Check your state's page for possible exceptions to this rule.


As stated above, frontage roads should generally be set to at least  Primary Street , if not marked as a higher type on a functional class map.

Many frontage roads are used as "feeder roads" or "access roads", often the primary or only means of entering and exiting a freeway. Setting these to the "street" type, as has been done in the past, has the potential to invalidate good routes which use freeways and major/minor highways. To ensure that routing works, always use at least "primary street" for frontage roads that are used in this way. It may be desirable to set the entire frontage road to the same type to achieve a more contiguous map appearance.

Street            link to this section

RoadPicN4.jpg

Any road for public travel which does not meet the criteria for any other type shall be classified as a  Street . Shown as "local roads" in some functional classification maps; not shown at all in others.

Service Road link to this section

The Service Road type is no longer available. Use other road types for service roads.

Quick reference chart link to this section

Refer to this chart to determine the road type of a given paved public road based on the functional class.

To use this chart, first determine the functional class of a road, and whether it is a signed, numbered highway in a particular highway system.

Where the column for the road's highway system and the row for the road's functional class meet, you will find the proper road type for that particular road.

A number of examples are given below the chart.


Highway Systems
Interstate Interstate Business Loop/Spur US Hwy (incl. some special routes) US Hwy BUS, SPUR, LOOP State Hwy (incl. some special routes) State Hwy BUS, SPUR[a], LOOP County Route Locally-maintained
example I-10 E I-94 Business US-190 US-460 Business SR-23 SR-400 Loop CR-15 Robertson St
F
u
n
c
t
i
o
n
a
l

C
l
a
s
s
Interstate[b]  Fw  n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a
Other Freeway[c] n/a  Fw   Fw   Fw   Fw   Fw   Fw   Fw 
Other Expressway[d] n/a  Major   Major   Major   Major   Major   Major   Major 
Other Principal Arterial[e] n/a  Major   Major   Major   Major   Major   Major   Major 
Minor Arterial[f] n/a  Major   Major   Minor   Minor   Minor   Minor   Minor 
Major Collector n/a  Major   Major   Minor   Minor   PS   PS   PS 
Minor Collector n/a  Major   Major   Minor   Minor   PS   PS   PS 
Local/not mapped n/a  Major   Major   Minor   Minor   PS   PS   Street 

^a When a state highway "SPUR" route is used to connect a state highway with another state highway, a US highway, or an Interstate (i.e., when it is used as a connector/CONN route), use the first state highway column.

^b Also known as Principal Arterial - Interstate.

^c Also known as Principal Arterial - Freeway.

^d Also known as Principal Arterial - Expressway.

^e Also known as Principal Arterial.

^f Also known as Other Arterial.


For example,

  • An Interstate Business Loop classified as a Minor Arterial is a  Major Highway .
  • A US Highway classified as a Minor Arterial is a  Major Highway .
  • A US Highway Spur route classified as a Minor Arterial is a  Minor Highway .
  • A State Highway classified as an Other Freeway is a  Freeway .
  • A State Highway classified as a Collector is a  Minor Highway .
  • A County Route classified as a Minor Arterial is a  Minor Highway .
  • A County Route classified as a Collector is a  Primary Street 
  • A locally-maintained road classified as an Other Principal Arterial is a  Major Highway .
  • A locally-maintained road classified as a Collector is a  Primary Street .


Legend
 Fw   Freeway 
 Major   Major Highway 
 Minor   Minor Highway 
 PS   Primary Street 
 Street   Street 

Other drivable roads link to this section

Dirt Road / 4X4 Trail            link to this section

RoadPicN6.jpg

The  Dirt Road / 4X4 Trail  type has the unique property that Waze users may ask not to be routed over it. Users may ask to avoid it for all through routing with the settings option "Dirt roads - Don't allow", or to avoid it for through routing longer than 300 m (984 ft) with the option "Dirt roads - Avoid long ones".

Because of this property, this type typically represents public side roads that some fraction of local drivers habitually avoid due to surface quality. In metropolitan or other urbanized regions, this generally means unpaved (dirt, gravel, crushed rock) roads, or roads in uncommonly poor condition by local standards. In other areas, roads with unpaved surfaces may be essential routes and thus necessarily set to other types such as Street, Primary Street, or even higher, as if they were paved.

Check your state page for details on whether your state follows unique guidelines for dirt roads, or contact your regional coordinator for further guidance.

Parking Lot Road            link to this section

RoadPicN7.jpg
Parking lots, along with other publicly accessible roads such as alleys that should not be used for traffic routing unless directly at the start or end point of a route.
This section was updated as of January 14, 2015 (2015-01-14) to clarify when to use  PLR  vs  Private Roads .
  • Use  Parking Lot Road  type for all necessary segments in the Parking Lot.
  •  Parking Lot Road  type should be used inside Apartment Complexes, Trailer Parks, Schools, and Universities unless it meets the criteria for Private Road found in the next section below.
  •  Parking Lot Roads  have a transition penalty when exiting the Parking Lot road segment. This should prevent Waze from routing you through a Parking Lot or an alley as a shortcut.
  •  Parking Lot Roads  can be used to avoid "missing road" automated Map Problem reports.
  •  Parking Lot Roads  can be used to prevent Waze from assuming drivers driving slowly or parked in the parking lot are in a traffic jam on the main road -- draw in the drivable portions of the parking lot that are near outside roadways.
  • Waze will not highlight slow speeds (automatically detected traffic jams) on  Parking Lot Roads 
Additional information on this topic can be reviewed in the forums.

Information on mapping a parking lot landmark "place" is covered here.

Private Road            link to this section

Pi gated-community1.jpg
 Private roads  are useful for the following situations:
  • Gated communities with controlled access
  • Schools and Universities (gates / guard)
  • Businesses with controlled access (gates / guard)

However, using private roads in some of these situations may require more complex mapping as covered in the article Private Installations. Be sure to read through that article before setting a whole neighborhood to all private roads.

As with  Parking Lot Roads , a route over a  Private Road  will incur a transition penalty upon leaving it for another road type. This transition penalty keeps Waze from routing Wazers through a private area as a shortcut. Unlike  Parking Lot Roads , however,  Private Roads  do not suppress automated traffic-jam detection.

  • Never use the  Private Road  type for unrestricted public roads
  • Do not use the  Private Road  type to try to force waze to route around slow (damaged or under construction) public roads. Talk to a routing expert to find out if there are any good solutions.
  •  Private Road  may be used for a public street that has a legally enforceable sign for local traffic only.
  • Waze handles  Private Roads  similarly to how it handles  Parking Lot Roads , but not exactly the same.
    • Similarity: Waze routing adds a penalty to a route that goes from a  Private Road  segment to a segment of a different type.
    • Difference: Waze will highlight traffic slowdowns on  Private Roads .

Non-drivable roads link to this section

Your car should not be here!

  • As of April 2015 the Waze app is intended only for drivers of motor vehicles, and Waze has no plans ever to support any other application. In fact, cyclists and pedestrians who use Waze near drivable roads can damage Waze's speed and traffic database! Editors should not map any road type for the sole purpose of encouraging non-driving Wazers.
  • It may be useful to map certain non-drivable roads as navigational references if they are visually obvious to drivers, for example by showing where a turn lies in relation to a railroad crossing (use the Railroad type) or a major Rails-to-Trails right-of-way (use the Pedestrian Boardwalk type).
  • If the GPS Points layer clearly shows frequent improper Wazing on a non-vehicle route near drivable roads, marking this route with a non-drivable road type can prevent damage to Waze's speed and traffic database. Do not, however, use the Walking Trail type for this purpose.
  • The Walking Trail road type, although listed as non-drivable, is fully routable and should only be used by experts in very limited cases.
  • As of June 2015, the non-drivable road types of Pedestrian Boardwalk, Stairway and Runway/Taxiway should not have any type of junction with a drivable road. When crossing drivable roads, these non-drivable road types should be bridged across without a junction and set at a different elevation. Note: this guidance is subject to change.
  • It is OK to junction drivable roads with the Railroad type. See specific details in the Railroad section later on this page.
  • Walking Trails, and other non-drivable road type which are visible in the app, can cause significant routing issues. If a walking trail (even when not connected to any other drivable segment) is closest to the latitude and longitude of the search result, the routing server will route you to the spot on the segment closest to that walking trail.

    In the sketch below, if you assume the Place target is a latitude and longitude returned by a Google search result, you would think that the actual destination would be the parking lot segment because it is the closest reachable/connected segment to the target. But it won't be. The actual destination will be where the green spot is, because the closest segment to the latitude and longitude is the walking trail, and the closest Waze can route to the walking trail is to where the green spot is.
Walking trail dest.png


Emergency Vehicle and DOT Service Roads link to this section

Emergency.jpg
"Emergency and Authorized Vehicles Only" and DOT Service Roads are to be treated as Non-drivable roads. These are found primarily through the median of divided highways to connect opposite direction lanes. If mapped, they should not be connected to any drivable road, with properties set to road type Private Road, and lock the segment at as high a rank as possible, up to rank 5.

Walking Trails link to this section

This section is new as of May 24, 2015 (2015-05-24). For details, please see the forum discussion.

Use Walking Trails only with assistance from an expert in Walking Trails. They should only be used in rare cases. Walking Trails may have strange side effects on nearby routing. Never use the Walking Trail road type for ordinary hiking paths or bike paths. Most hiking and bicycling paths should not be on the map at all.

The WME lists the Walking Trail road type as non-drivable. However, as of May 2015, Walking Trails are fully routable and even support Waze House Numbers. Waze treats them in some ways like "Dirt road / 4X4 Trail" but displays them differently. Historically, editors have disconnected Walking Trails to make sure Waze doesn't route drivers over them. This doesn't always work as desired. If a disconnected Walking Trail comes closer to a destination than any other road, Waze may route drivers to a location nearer to the Walking Trail than to the destination. This problem can be severe for Walking Trails passing close to many destinations in a dense neighborhood. Connected or not, the Walking Trail type should never be used where effects on local routing are not desired.

The name "Walking Trail" suggests that Waze wants to support pedestrians and cyclists. However, as of April 2015, Waze focuses on drivers of motor vehicles and has no plans to encourage or support any other application. In fact, pedestrians and cyclists using the Waze app may damage Waze. By Wazing at speeds different from nearby traffic, they can create false traffic indications and even influence Waze's records of average road and turn speeds.

Because of this effect, editors should not map Walking Trails, or any other road type, for the sole purpose of encouraging non-driving Wazers. See the descriptions of other non-drivable road types for recommended applications of those types.

If the GPS Points layer shows clearly that pedestrians and cyclists already use Waze on a path or trail that lies parallel to a drivable road, then, as of May 2015, the path may be mapped with a Pedestrian Boardwalk. Doing so will limit the damage these Wazers would otherwise cause to the road's speed data. Such paths should only be mapped once it is clear Wazers regularly use them.

Applications link to this section

In rare cases, connected Walking Trails can bring drivers to destinations where otherwise Waze might fail to offer the best route. For example:

  • A concert pavilion in an urban park accessed by a pedestrian path from a distant parking lot.
  • A train station reachable from either side of the tracks but with no drivable road across them.
  • A destination addressed on a non-drivable footpath.

A connected Walking Trail may be used to route drivers to such destinations. If the Walking Trail goes through from one drivable road to another, ensure that outgoing turn restrictions are red to disallow through routing via the Walking Trail. Lock the Walking Trail as this is uncommon usage that may puzzle other editors.

Orientation or destination applications involving foot or bicycle paths that do not require routing, such as marking where an obvious bicycle path crosses a road or where a trailhead is located, should not use the Walking Trail type. Use Pedestrian Boardwalks, Stairways, or Point Places as appropriate.

Naming link to this section

If destinations are addressed using House Numbers on a Walking Trail, it is essential that the Walking Trail's name and city fields be set accordingly so that routing to the addresses will work. For other routing situations, Walking Trails should be named to alert drivers that they must leave their car. For example, a Walking Trail connecting the two sides of a train station may be named "Station Access Footpath".

Pedestrian Boardwalks link to this section

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Stairway link to this section

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Railroad link to this section

The guidelines below have been updated to reflect new standards on naming of railroads as of June 28th, 2016.
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The  |-|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|-| Railroad |-|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|  road type serves three purposes in Waze. First, it provides drivers with visual orientation relative to railroad and light-rail tracks. More importantly, in the common case where passenger-carrying tracks lie parallel with roads, mapping the tracks allows Waze to recognize spurious speed data from people Wazing on the train and prevent it from corrupting speed data for the adjacent road. Finally, when a railroad crosses a drivable road segment at grade (same elevation) the routing server can better determine delays at that crossing.

Use the following guidelines when mapping railroad segments:

  • Do NOT enter a name for the railroad segment unless the tracks are historical in nature, a major landmark, or a routine destination for Wazers and your local state/regional wiki guidelines allow for such naming. The Waze app now renders railroad tracks as such so naming serves little purpose any longer. (See more below on Naming railroad segments.)
  • Always select "None" for the city name. This avoids city smudging.
  • Lock the segment at L2.
  • Do not map railroads below ground, as they do not serve any of the three purposes outlined above. This is especially true in urban areas where underground rail lines are common, and their appearance on the map would be confusing to drivers.
  • Set the elevation just as you would a drivable segment. When tracks junction a road on the ground, the Elevation should be set to Ground.
  • Create junctions between drivable roads and railroads.[rr]
  • Set railroad to 2-way directionality
  • When mapping railroad tracks, focus on those near drivable roads.
  • Map rail yards simply, with one railroad segment along either edge of the yard's tracks.
  • Map industrial spurs only if they cross drivable roads.
  • Do not map every piece of parallel track, such as in sidings or yards, or industrial spurs that do not cross any roads. Your work may otherwise be seen as clutter, much like mapping every parking lot row.
  • Multiple parallel lines at crossings:
    • At most crossings, there should be only one railroad segment mapped and no more than two parallel railroads mapped at any crossing.
    • Parallel lines are to be at least 5m apart
    • In general, there is no reason to have multiple lines mapped. When not at a crossing, even four parallel lines can be easily mapped as a single railroad segment in Waze.
  • Keep segment lengths under 10,000 meters – the longer the segment length, the more sluggish the editor is to respond to changes.
  • Do not map railroads using a drivable road type (streets, primary streets, etc.); it could be a hazard to human life if drivers were routed to them.

^rr Note: The routing server will properly account for delays at railroad crossings through a segment without a junction. However, with a junction, the historical data for the rail crossing will be more accurate.

Use the following guidelines when naming railroad segments, only if allowed by your local wiki guidelines:

  • For urban rapid transit and light rail systems you may optionally use the name of the transit authority and the name of the line, separated by a hyphen (e.g., "MBTA - Green Line", "RTA - Riverfront Streetcar").
    • If a system has only one line, of course, use its name alone (e.g., "Detroit People Mover").
    • If multiple lines share the same track or run on parallel tracks, include all lines (e.g., "Metro Rail - Red/Purple Lines").
    • However, if a rapid transit system is so complex that including all line names would lead to an absurd result on some railroad segments, use the name of the system alone (e.g., "BART", "MTA") throughout the system.
  • Federal DOT Railroad GIS: http://fragis.fra.dot.gov/Apps/GISFRASafety/


For specific recommendations in other countries outside the United States, please see the entry for the country in question here.

Runway/TaxiwayService road.png link to this section

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Airport runways and private airstrips may be mapped using the Runway/Taxiway road type. The Runway/Taxiway type is for display only and must never connect to drivable road segments. If a drivable road and a runway cross, set the elevation of the road below that of the runway and ensure there is no connection. Draw each runway as a single segment and lock it to prevent lower-ranking editors from attaching a road. Do not form junctions where runways cross each other. Name each runway using the word Runway and the runway designations with the lower number first and a hyphen between runway numbers (e.g., "Runway 16R-34L".) For the "City" field of runway segments, check "None" to avoid any chance of city smudging.

Despite its title, the Runway/Taxiway road type should never be used for an aircraft taxiway because it would render the same as a runway and confuse the display. Taxiways not intended for frequent access by street vehicles should not be mapped at all with any road type. Taxiways that do commonly serve street vehicles as well as aircraft, for example at fly-in communities, may be mapped as Streets provided they remain disconnected from any runway.

Ferry link to this section

Prior to 2016 the Ferry Road type was not to be used. Since that time, there have been changes to the Routing server that allow the use of the Ferry Road type.

The Ferry road type should only be used where a road crosses a body of water through the use of an automotive ferry. For more on how to map ferries see Ferries/USA. The Ferry Road type is useful because it causes the Waze App to display a "ferry" symbol for routes that include a  • • • • Ferry • • • •   segment.

The Ferry road type is treated by the Routing server as a minor highway.The speed for the ferry road type is fixed at a very slow speed typical of watercraft, and not estimated from user speeds.

If the ferry you are working on crosses an area well covered with GPS traces, OR travels at higher than normal speeds, please notify your Regional Coordinator. Additionally, if you have issues with routes passing thru a ferry segment, please contact your Regional Coordinator.

Roundabouts Round.png

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Roundabouts have few principles:

The first one, each node on the roundabout can only be connected to no more than one segment.

Each connection has a spectrum that exists in order to notify the Client on how to define the message (Go straight, exit through the 2nd / 3rd / 4th exit).

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The system will include the radius border from the center and notify the user accordingly.

For more information on when to create a Roundabout or a loop instead, please review the Junction Style Guide.
For information on what type of road to set a Roundabout to, please review Creating and Editing a Roundabout

Special case roads not covered link to this section

There are a number of other types of roadways and lane types which are not directly covered with the current options above. In some cases there are plans to add some of these special cases, but in the mean time the following guidelines are the best that can be done with the current settings.


Bus or cab only lanes link to this section

When a road or lane is designated for bus or cab use only, mark that road segment(s) as a Private Road to prevent the Waze router from using that segment(s) for general traffic, since the majority of the users will not be able to use that lane. It is also advisable to set the turn restrictions to prevent turns into that segment(s), but permit turns exiting the segment.

If a road is one-way, but allows bus or cab traffic to flow the other direction, leave the road as one-way with the normal flow of traffic. There is no need to create a second road traveling the opposite direction for the bus and cab-only traffic.


Driveways link to this section

Many residents of urban communities have very short driveways between the named road that they live on and the garage or carport on their property. In general these very short segments should not be mapped, because they have no name, would clutter the map in the client app, take a lot of time to draw, and would greatly increase the overall size of the Waze mapping database with very little return.

In the case of very long driveways, it may helpful to a driver to see the driveway mapped on the client app or even necessary for Waze to determine how to reach the destination. In those cases it may be prudent to add a road. See the article on Driveways for more information.

See Also link to this section

Road names/USA
Junction Style Guide
United Kingdom/Roads