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Private Installations

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Problem Definition
[[File:pi_gated-community3.jpg|right|300px|Gated Community]]
A Private Installation or Community is a small to large restricted-access set of regularly navigable roads connected at one or more points to a public road network. The smallest example may be a single private community street protected by a gate. The largest USA installation is White Sands Missile Range at 3,200 square miles, larger than the USA’s smallest state, which includes dirt roads, primary streets and highways. Waze should be able to provide the best route for everyone. We wish to address such locations because many "resident" drivers work and live within private installations. Some "visitors" may be handled differently. Above all, we must prevent erroneous routes through private installations for those who do not have or need access. Doing so would be , as it causes a significant inconvenience an erroneous route.
Actual access restriction in these installations or communities is usually implemented by automated gates or guards that only allow entry by authorized individuals or vehicles. In more rare cases, gates may be controlled with a mechanical lock of some kind. An unmanned means of preventing one-way access could be tire puncture strip strips that would deflate tires of vehicles going in one direction. In some cases access may be unrestricted by physical means, but may be implemented through patrols, cameras, or other means that would lead to a response to apprehend an unauthorized visitor.
A Private Installation, particularly larger government facilities, may have nested levels of access control. A particular region of the installation may be excluded to those who have general access to the larger installation. Larger examples may have all types of roads such as primary streets and highways. Smaller examples would only have roads and dirt roads.
# Test your private installation
==== 1. Routing Around, On, Off, But Never Through ====
[[File:pi_graphic1.png|frame|Figure 1. General Concept]]
Figure 2 shows that some, usually larger, private installations may have nested levels of access. Waze should be able to route on or off of a private installation at any level of nested access without entering a separate access area of a deeper level. Route A to B illustrates this concept. Additionally, Waze should be able to navigate from a deeper level of nested access to any other point including off the private installation. Routes between points C and D illustrates routing onto or off of the private installation. Routes between points E to F shows navigation between nested levels. Waze should also be able to navigate well within a larger installation that has multiple road types.
==== 2. Diversity of Installations Exists ====
There are many types of Private Installations that can represent a large variation on types of access points, gates, and routing preference for residents and guests. While most Private Installations are the same and follow a "SIMPLESimple" approach, those that design and build special entrances and exists exits may come up with something new for which the editor will have to adapt.
Attempt to keep your map design simple!
==== 3. Consider Resident & Visitors ====
''This is a more advanced concept. If you do not understand these issues or cannot identify how your Private Installation deals with Visitors differently from Residents, you may wish to follow the preferred approaches or seek help from others with more experience.''
===== Why is resident versus visitor an issue? =====
The easy answer is that some Private Installations have gates that serve only residents while others sever serve both visitors and residents. In some cases a gate may only serve either visitors or residents, but not both. We may wish to prevent routing to one or more of these gates gated entrances or exits based upon the type of Private installation and the function of that gate.
We must do this at times because the diversity of Private Installations and behavior by residents and visitors is too great to be completely represented by the Waze Map. We may have to make compromises in how Waze routes drivers. Editor discretion is needed in making these decisions.
The primary purpose of a Private Installation is to always prevent unauthorized vehicles from entering their perimeter. Why? This would inconvenience the vast majority, the public, because they would be given an inaccurate route through a location where they would likely be stopped.
* Large military bases using visitor preference could route the majority of traffic 1 to 100 miles out of the way every trip. Smaller Private Installations might route a shorter distance to a few miles out of the way, but in doing so risk forced routing through bad traffic.
* Are there are signs and or guards or both that can redirect drivers to the right place? If so, then routing the wrong drivers to that gate may not be as important of an issue.
===== Which Installations are Majority-Visitor? =====
The number of people commuting and trips driven to these Private Installations by residents far exceeds that from visitors.
==== 4. Exceptions: Installations with Special Rules ====
Please read the [[#Installations_with_Special_Rules | "Special Rules"]] section of this wiki page for additional information.
* Paid Parking Lots
==== 5. Protect Private Installation Editing ====
Work that you put into making a Private Installation route property can be easily damaged by novice editors. Your editing efforts should be locked at a high enough rank to prevent novice editors from damaging the routing, yet allow them to edit non-critical roads.
What should usually be locked?
* All gate road segments that control routing onto or off of the Private Installation.
** This includes BLOCKED Blocked gates so that they are not reconnected.
* Road segments around the perimeter of the Private Installation that you notice are accidentally connected by novice editors. If it happens once, it will happen again!
* Road segments around the perimeter that look like they may be connected on the areal aerial images, but are really blocked by fences or other structures difficult to see on the arealaerial.
* Area Places over gates.
==== 6. Testing Your Private Installation ====
Significant testing has been performed to create this wiki content. This includes testing on actual private installations of various types and discussed in the Waze Forum. It is suggested that you test your Private Installation edits because mistakes can be easily made and routing not work as you intended. Here are some suggestions of how you may accomplish this after you make edits.
** Navigate between two distant points outside the private installation to ensure no through-routing.
** Navigate from outside to inside the private installation, drive around the outside of the private installation and ensure rerouting occurs to the logical nearest gate.
** If you have access to the private installation, repeat the above by by driving around inside the installation.
== The underlying logic - PENALTY Penalty ==
Understanding regular/private segment penalties is the key to understanding how to edit a particular Private Installation.
=== Penalty: Background ===
Waze uses a [[Routing_penalties#Segment_properties|routing penalty]] system to control traffic flow. This approach for controlling traffic into and through private installations depends upon that routing logic. When a Private or Parking Lot segment is used on the map, the Waze routing server places a routing PENALTY penalty when transitioning '''from''' a Private or Parking Lot segment '''to''' and ''any'' non-private or non-parking lot segment, including transitions from Private to PLR or vice versa. When a destination is a parking lot, there is no PENALTY penalty to reach the parking lot. However if the destination is on the far side of a parking lot on a standard street, Waze will try to avoid driving through the parking lot to get to the street on the other side. The same is true for private segment types.
=== Penalty: Private Installations ===
Private Installation editing uses PENALTY penalty with private road segments to prevent through-routing and control which gates have preferred routing. It is also used to control exit routing so there is typically no preference for an exit other than directed by standard Waze algorithms.
Private segments only add a penalty in transitioning from a private to another road segment type. There is no extra penalty going from one private segment to an adjacent private segment. So, for the purposes of Private Installations, there is usually no need to connect two private segments together at a gate.
{{mbox|type=warning|text=Note that a single private segment transition for a Private Installation has enough PENALTY penalty to cause Waze to route hundreds of miles to the next entry segment that is not private or that has fewer private-regular street transitions. Therefore the penalty of a private segment is so extreme it is almost absolute as compared to other routes.}}
On this wiki page we may use multiple private/regular street segment combinations to increase penalty. For simplicity on this wiki page, will just add up the number of private/regular street transitions to count the penalty for any given path, such as across an access point or gate.
== Places / City Names for Private Installations ==
Should a private installation be marked over it's its entire area as a Area Place Area (landmark)? Not always. Very small private installations can be marked by a Area Place over their entire area if it serves a purpose.
This does not make sense for larger private installations that might have other Places within them or that are actually cities. For these larger installations, use the city field of all street names to name the private installation.
This section explains techniques and options for editing different types of gates you will encounter in Private Installation access points.
These gate editing options will be used separately or combined in following sections that describe how they are applied for SIMPLE Simple and COMPLEX Complex Private Installations.
We will consider these types of gates:
* '''BASICBasic''' - single two-way road segment* '''STANDARDStandard''' - two, one-way road segments* '''SPECIALTYSpecialty''' - a more complex, modified STANDARD Standard gates* '''BLOCKEDBlocked''' - a gate that is almost always closed
=== Gates: Common Best Practices ===
* All the segments used in a gate must be at least 5 m (16 feet) long. Check the house numbers. If they are supposed to be inside the installation, make sure they are not on any of the gate segments.
=== Gate Option: BASIC Basic Gate ===
[[File:pi_graphic5.png|right|250px|Access Point detail - Alternate Treatment]]
A "BASIC Basic Gate" (sometimes referred to as a "Simple Gate") is an access point represented by a single short two-way private road segment.
'''BASIC Basic Gates have a PENALTY penalty of 1 in both directions.'''
BASIC Basic Gates are often useful for smaller Private Installations, particularly those with just one or a few access points with simple road structures that would make a STANDARD Standard Gate burdensome to use on the map. Examples include smaller private residential areas with automated gates.
Benefit of this type of gate is that it is more structurally simple than the STANDARD Standard Gate. Detriments of this type of gate is that it does not allow any road type but "private" to be used and it cannot represent more complex gate geometries often seen at larger Private Installations.
A BASIC Basic Gate effectively isolates the entire installation from the public road network unless a route begins or ends within the installation. The private road segments and surrounding roads should be locked with a high enough level lock to prevent novice editors from deleting or changing this control.
[[File:pi_large_alt1.jpg|500px|center|Alternate Treatment for Larger Installations]]
<br>
{{mbox|type=warning|text=Warning. Do not mix BASIC Basic and STANDARD Standard gates in the same Private Installation. Doing so will cause incorrect exit routing preferred through the STANDARD Standard gates. For a solution, see [[#Gate_Option:_MODIFIED_STANDARD_Gate _Modified_Standard_Gate | MODIFIED STANDARD Modified Standard Gate]].}}
=== Gate Option: STANDARD Standard Gate ===
[[File:pi_graphic4.png|right|250px|Access Point detail - STANDARD Standard Gate]]
A "STANDARD Standard Gate" is an access point represented by a one-way split road entering and exiting the installation. The entering one-way road will include one private road segment. The exiting one-way road will be of one segment using the appropriate type of that road (usually street, primary street, or minor highway). This structure often mimics the actual lane geometry for such installations. In addition, exit lanes from private installations are usually not restricted. That is, anyone within the private installation can exit through a gate without credentials or a code to open the gate.
'''STANDARD Standard Gates have a PENALTY penalty of 1 going onto the installation and a PENALTY penalty of 0 exiting the installation.'''
STANDARD Standard Gates are useful for moderate to large-sized Private Installations. This is particularly true where the access points have guard booths, turn around streets, and other structures that would make it hard to use BASIC Basic Gates.
A primary benefit of this type of gate is that it can accommodate complex gate road structures such as turn-arounds and wider areas between the entering and exiting roadways. It can also allow the exiting segment to be of the same type as the road network on either side, for example, a primary street. A detriment of this type of gate is that it is more complicated than the BASIC Basic Gate.
A STANDARD Standard Gate effectively isolates the entire installation from the public road network unless a route begins or ends within the installation. All the gate road segments and surrounding roads should be locked with a high enough level lock to prevent novice editors from deleting or changing this control.
[[File:pi_large_gate1.jpg|center|frame|STANDARD Standard Gate treatment example. Note that this road is of a "primary" type but the private segment used for the inbound lane is used to prevent through-routing.]]
[[File:pi_large_gate2.jpg|center|frame|STANDARD Standard Gate treatment example. Note that this road is of a regular "street" type. The private road segment is used for the inbound lane.]]
{{mbox|type=warning|text=Warning. Do not mix BASIC Basic and STANDARD Standard gates in the same Private Installation. Doing so will cause incorrect exit routing preferred through the STANDARD Standard gates. For a solution, see [[#Gate_Option:_MODIFIED_STANDARD_Gate _Modified_Standard_Gate | MODIFIED STANDARD Modified Standard Gate]].}}
==== Gate Option: MODIFIED STANDARD Modified Standard Gate ====
[[File:modified-standard.png|right|270px|Access Point detail - MODIFIED STANDARD Standard Gate]]
As an advanced topic, one can create a "Modified Standard Gate" that has a different exit road configuration. The exit road would be the standard one-way street, but at least one segment of that path would be private.
'''MODIFIED STANDARD Modified Standard Gates have a PENALTY penalty of 1 going onto the installation and a PENALTY penalty of 1 exiting the installation.'''
Why would you use this configuration? Geometry of some gates may require separate entry and exit roads. This makes use of a Simple Basic Gate more difficult because a Simple Basic Gate uses just one two-way segment. The most important reasons is that MODIFIED STANDARD Standard Gates can be mixed with BASIC Basic Gates and still have all gates with the same entrance penalty and exit penalty.
=== Gate Option: SPECIALTY Specialty Gates ===
This section will consider gates such used to divert very specialty, usually lower-volume traffic at locations including larger military bases and smaller residential communities.
SPECIALTY Specialty Gates are those that are usually (but not always) represented with both entry and exit penalty higher than other gates, and thus will never be routed. Instances will be listed here to aid editors in considering their use.
Note that while these gates will never be routed, this is acceptable because they service a much smaller amount of traffic than other resident/visitor gates. Allowing Specialty Gates to have the same penalty as other gates would cause erroneous routes for the majority of traffic. This would result in poor performance for the majority of Wazers.
You may encounter other SPECIALTY Specialty Gates, but the ones covered here are:
* Contractor / Deliver Gate
* Restricted Gate
* Resident-only Exit
==== Specialty Gate: CONTRACTORContractor/DELIVERY Delivery Gate ====
A "Contractor/Delivery Gate" is one where specialty traffic is routed, primarily on military bases; however, a commercial campus may have an equivalent "delivery entrance" or "construction vehicle entrance" controlled by guards. These gates exist primarily because special inspections or approval must occur for those going to these gates. If this traffic were to be processed at normal gates, the activity would block and delay higher-volume resident/visitor traffic. Standard residents and visitors are usually rejected or turned around at these access points and not allowed to enter or exit at these locations.
Note that those using a Contractor/Delivery Gate may themselves be residents or visitors. They must use this gate for a spacial special purpose.
[[file:PI_contractor_gate1.jpg |center | frame | Contractor and Delivery gates usually have less traffic, have wider openings, larger parking areas and other features that differentiate them from BASIC Basic or STANDARD Standard gates. They are almost never used by residents and regular visitors. These are used mostly for deliveries and large construction vehicles.]]
Note that some Private Installations have a Contractor or Deliver Gate merged with a regular visitor/resident gate. In these cases, use a BASIC Basic or STANDARD Standard Gate. You can recognize these because there is usually a pull-off area where inspections occur for deliveries or large vehicles.
[[File:specialty-gate.png|right|270px|Access Point detail - Example of a Contractor Gate]]
These gates should have a higher penalty than other gates to prevent all entry/exit routing of traffic by Waze. Typically this is done with a private-street-private-street set of segments, or more if required. If possible, use a set of two-way set of road segments. Exact geometry is left to the local editor based upon the structure of the actual roadways. Many options are possible. Make sure to count entry and exit penalties separately and ensure they are at least one larger than other gates.
==== Specialty Gate: RESTRICTED Restricted Gate ====
A restricted gate is one that has highly restricted traffic flow for residents only. Examples could include a chain link fence closed with a padlock that must be manually opened by residents with a key. The amount of traffic is going to be low because of the manual operation, and therefore this will be a part of Minority Drivers. Editors should not allow routing at these locations because Waze cannot determine which drivers have access and any allowed routing would inconvenience the Majority Drivers.
[[File:restricted-gate.png|right|270px|Access Point detail - Example of a Restricted Gate]]
'''RESTRICTED Restricted Gates should have an PENALTY penalty that prevents routing. Typically this is a penalty of two or more.'''
An alternative treatment is to use a Blocked Gate rather than a Restricted Gate. We prefer not to do this because a Wazer going through one of these gates would tend to generate a Map Problem Report indicating a road segment was missing.
Another alternate treatment is when a Private Installation is comprised of only restricted gates. In this case, one can model all these gates with SIMPLE Basic gates because they are the same.
==== Specialty Gate: Resident-Only Exit ====
'''Definition:''' Resident-only exits are those that require a transmitter, a badge swipe, or some form of ID shown to a guard to exit. Visitors are not allowed to exit resident-only exits. Usually this type of gate is used for added security or loss-prevention.
Resident-only exist exits appear to be fairly rare in Private Installations, but they can exist. Typical Private Installations allow anyone inside to exit without inspection either because guards don't check exiting traffic or a vehicle can pull up to a gate and the gate opens automatically for everyone.
Because Resident-Only exits are rare and usage is likely very local, it is difficult to provide a common approach. It is therefore left to local editor discretion to decide how to handle these gates. Two general options exist. '''You should pick the one that negatively impacts the fewest drivers.'''
# '''Edit an exit penalty higher than most gates.''' This will block these exits from ever being routed. This will favor the unknowing visitor by making sure they are sent to a visitor-friendly gate, but prevent Waze routing algorithms from ever using this exit for residents.
=== Gate Option: BLOCKED Blocked Gates ===
[[File:PI_lock_gate_1.png|400px|right|Private Installation Blocked Gate Example]]
A BLOCKED Blocked Gate is an access point that is usually closed. They are opened infrequently by few individuals.
'''BLOCKED Blocked Gates have an infinite PENALTY penalty as they cannot be routed.'''
BLOCKED Blocked Gates exist on small and large Private Installations. A small installation may use a BLOCKED Blocked Gate to allow access to service, repair, or construction vehicles that infrequently visit the installation. Larger Private Installations will likely have more of these BLOCKED Blocked Gates that exist to allow special infrequent traffic.
BLOCKED Blocked Gates might be closed with chains, chain link fences, various types of gate structures that can open and close, and even concrete barriers. They might be used very infrequently or daily by a small set of residents.
[[File:Blocked-gate-1.png|600px|center|frame|Private Installation Blocked Gate Example - Street view of the above areal aerial image. ]]
<br>
The surrounding segments should be locked at a rank high enough to prevent lower-level editors from reconnecting the road.
BLOCKED Blocked Gates can be used as needed in any SIMPLE Simple or COMPLEX Complex Installation without restriction because they disallow all traffic at all times.
[[File:Blocked-gate-2.png|600px|center|Private Installation Blocked Gate Example]]
== Editing Approach - SIMPLESimple/COMPLEX Complex ==
''If you are familiar with editing Private Installations, this section is not required. it is included here to provide advice and suggestions to those new to Private Installations.''
Because there are so many different types and variations of Private Installations, we organize them here in two categories - how they might be approached by editors. The two categories and their characteristics are:
* '''SIMPLE Simple Private Installations'''
** Contain one type of gate at one or more access points.
** Penalties for all entry pathways are the same.
** Primary editing focus is to prevent the public from routing through the Private Installation.
** Are fairly easy to edit.
* '''COMPLEX Complex Private Installations'''
** Contain two or more types of gates at multiple access points.
*** Resident-only gate
=== Common Best Practices ===
* Do not disconnect roads to alter routing into Private Installations because this does not reflect reality in the road system, impacts residents that can enter any gate, and stops people from routing out of the Private Installation. The only time this is done is when the road is really closed all or most of the time. See the section on [[Private_Installations#Gate_Option:_LOCKED_Gates _Locked_Gates | Locked Gates]].
* Do not make all roads within a Private Installation "private roads." This does not reflect reality, has been found to cause routing errors in Waze, prevents use of a diverse set of gate types, and prevents nested Private Installations. Because this was an accepted practice in the past, you may need to alter prior work like this.
* Test your Private Installation. Test in Live Map. If possible, drive-test your Private Installation or seek help from a local resident. Information about testing your editing is contained elsewhere on this page. Such testing can help you find rogue connections and errors in gate treatment on the map.
== Editing '''SIMPLESimple''' Private Installations ==
This section explains how to edit SIMPLE Simple Private Installations.
=== Definition - Simple Private Installations ===
Simple installations are those private communities, military bases, and other installations with only one type of gate treatment for one or more access points. Access points may include only one of the following and as many BLOCKED Blocked gates as needed:
* BASIC Basic Gates* STANDARD Standard Gates
Typically these attributes might indicate an installation is Simple: (a) only one access point, (b) for multiple access points all gates are the same. The size of the Private Installation does not matter. The largest Private Installation in the USA, White Sands, is a Simple Private Installation.
* Private school
* Small closed commercial campus
* Simple Military sites (e.g., National Guard armories), usually those without SPECIALTY Specialty Gates.
This does '''not''' include paid parking lots and other parking facilities. These are to be mapped with parking lot roads. See the Special Rules section below.
=== SIMPLE Simple Installations: Preferred Editing Approach ===
Every access point must be of the same type of gate, either all BASIC Basic or all STANDARDStandard. One cannot use a mixture of these two gates because routing out of the Private Installation would always favor STANDARD Standard gates no matter where the driver was located.
It is suggested that you separately count the penalties at each gate for exiting and entering. For the Private Installation to route properly, (1) All entry penalties should be the same for every access point or gate and (2) all exit penalties should be the same for every access point or gate.
BLOCKED Blocked Gates are always allowed editing a SIMPLE Simple Installation because they do not alter routing behavior.
By definition, other gate types, like SPECIALTY GATESSpecialty gates, are not defined for a SIMPLE Simple Installation. This would make it a COMPLEX Complex Installation.
Note that it is permissible to use BASIC gates Basic Gates at locations where guard houses are located if the entry and exit roads are one and the same or very close together.
==== Area Places ====
Because visitors may be routed to resident-only gates in this approach, editors should consider placing a sufficiently large Area Place over each visitor gate and naming it. In this way a visitor would have the option of routing to the appropriate gate (via the Area Place) to which their host directs them or they otherwise know to travel.
== Editing '''COMPLEXComplex''' Private Installations ==
This section explains how to edit COMPLEX Complex Private Installations.
=== Definition: COMPLEX Complex Private Installations ===
Complex Installations are those private communities, military bases, or other installations that have more than one gate treatment for multiple access points. Access points in the installation may include one or more of the following:
* BASIC Basic Gates* STANDARD Standard Gates* SPECIALTY Specialty Gates* BLOCKED Blocked Gates
Complex Installations may have other key attributes. They large enough that there is some reason to have primary streets or highways. They are also more likely to have multiple levels of access control (installations within installations). Specifying exact size is not effective because of significant variation in these installations.
Private installations covered by this article do '''not''' include airports or theme parks. See the [[#Installations_with_Special_Rules | "Special Rules"]] section of this wiki page for information concerning roads in these locations.
=== COMPLEX Complex Installations: Preferred Editing Approach ===
It is recommended that, just like SIMPLE Simple Installations, most access points be of the same type of gate, either all BASIC Basic or all STANDARDStandard; however, other gate types can be added if they produce the desired routing behavior. Typically delivery and contractor gates (SPECIALTY Specialty gates) should have an entry and exit penalty one higher than all other gates so that no resident or regular visitor is routed in or out of these gates. This is because traffic volume using delivery and contractor gates is very small.
BLOCKED Blocked Gates are always allowed editing a COMPLEX Complex Installation because they do not alter routing behavior.
One approach to consider is this:
# Use BLOCKED Blocked gates for all those gates permanently or semi-permanently closed.# Use a SIMPLE Simple Installation approach at first so all remaining gates are routed equally.# Identify contractor or delivery gates. Using SPECIALTY Specialty gates, make sure that the entry and exit penalties of these gates is at least one higher than all other gates so they are never routed.
== Special Topics: Larger Private Installations ==
Publicly accessible roads in a theme park, even after a pay-station/gate, are to be mapped with parking lot roads, similarly to other paid parking lots. Furthermore, be careful with mapping the "backstage" private roads which are only to be used by employees. It may be wise to not map these roads, similarly to "air-side" airport roads as described in [[#Airports: Air-side Roads | "Airports"]] (but to a lesser extent), so that routes are given to the public entrance of the theme park facility.
=== Military Bases and Government Installations === While road treatment is covered in the body of this Wiki page, questions often arise about what items to landmark by adding Area and Point Places on these facilities. &nbsp;This is particularly important if you have access to these locations as a resident, worker, or visitor and use that access to learn something about the Private Installation. &nbsp;A general rule is to not mark specific locations with a Place unless the public installation website provides that information via directors or maps. &nbsp;Specific examples of what '''not to map''' include organizational names occupying buildings, building numbers, hangar numbers, etc. when they are not publicly available. &nbsp;Examples of items to usually map include gates, visitor access points, and frequent destinations like marching fields, parks, museums, on-base schools, etc. ==== Landmarks (Places) approved for military bases ====<ul style="/* insecure input */"><li>Commissary</li><li>PX/BX</li><li>Gas stations</li><li>Parks</li><li>Museums</li><li>School</li><li>College / University</li></ul>
See [[Military_Bases|Military Bases]] for proper editing on a military base.
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