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Road types

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Emergency Vehicle and DOT Service Roads: typo
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| text = {{As of |2018|0410|2331|df=us}}, the new road type {{Road|Narrow Street|style=background-color: #BEBA6CPassageway}} is available not suitable for use in the WME. The routing, display, and restriction details of {{Road|Narrow Street|style=background-color: #BEBA6C}} are not finalized, and it is not functional on the routing servers (it acts like a {{Street|Local Street}})US. At this time, DO NOT use the {{Road|Narrow Street|style=background-color: #BEBA6CPassageway}} road type in the USA without explicit champ approval for each instance.
}}
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== {{@|Overview}} ==
 
=== {{@|A hybrid system}} ===
 
Road types in the United States are determined through a hybrid system of FHWA functional classification and U.S., state, and sometimes county highway systems. These systems work together to create a harmonious Waze map with excellent routing characteristics. Neither of these two facets of the road type system should be considered sufficient on its own, without the other. The road type guidance has been carefully crafted to join these two systems into one single contiguous Waze road type system.
 
==== {{@|Functional classification}} ====
 
Functional classifications (FC) are determined using a set of criteria selected by the [[wikipedia:Federal Highway Administration|Federal Highway Administration]] (FHWA). These criteria include not only the physical attributes of the road but also efficiency of travel, number of access points, speed limits, route spacing, actual usage, and continuity. This can lead to quite different classifications for roads that appear similar. For example, a six-lane divided road in an urbanized area may be a Collector (Primary Street); a two-lane road through the middle of a town may be a principal arterial (Major Highway).
 
Functional classification is a national standard, but functional classification maps are published by state departments of transportation. Links to functional classification maps for each state can be found on [[National resources/Functional classification|the functional classification page]].
 
==== {{@|Highway systems}} ====
 
The '''[[wikipedia:Interstate Highway System|Interstate Highway System]]''' (formally, the Dwight D. Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways) is a nationwide network of freeways designated by Congress and administered by the FHWA and [[wikipedia:American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials|AASHTO]], a nationwide organization of state departments of transportation with governmental support. The system facilitates high-speed travel throughout the nation.
 
The [[wikipedia:United States Numbered Highways|United States Numbered Highways]], or '''U.S. Highways''', system is a nationwide integrated network of roads also designated by Congress and administered by the FHWA and AASHTO. While many of the routes in this system have been superseded by the Interstate Highway System, they remain important as direct links between regions not served by the new system, and as alternatives to Interstate travel in the case of heavy traffic or incident.
 
Each of the fifty states (along with the District of Columbia and some of the United States's overseas territories) has a numbered '''[[wikipedia:state highway|state highway]] system'''. These systems are designated and administered by their respective state legislatures and departments of transportation as statewide networks of important travel links between cities and communities of those states. The roads in these systems, while of lesser national importance, are nevertheless essential for travel within the state.
 
In addition to their state highway systems, some states designate [[wikipedia:County highway|county routes]] which are important for travel within a county. These routes serve important functions in a short-distance capacity.
=== {{@|Importance of road types}} ===
#* Since freeways are given the highest priority of all, having other high-type roads is necessary to provide viable alternatives to the routing server in case freeways are clogged with traffic.
# When viewing the map, more important roads should appear at the far zoom levels. Without proper types, the zoomed out display can be misleading.
 The {{Freeway}} and {{Ramp}} road types each have their own special rules. The {{Major Highway}}, {{Minor Highway}}, and {{Primary Street}} types are designated using a set of minimum criteria, as explained # Certain [[#HighwaysOther drivable roads|below]]. ====Exceptions==== Occasionally, if deemed necessary for proper routing, a particular other drivable road's type may be set higher than as prescribed in these rules. If a road has a '''higher''' type than set forth in these rules, there may be a reason for it. [[File:Connector.png|thumb|right|300px|Connector.png|Because the freeway exit is signed to the state route at the bottom of the image, and exiting traffic must use the road on the left to reach it, this road has been given the Major Highway type.types]] One common reason for a road to be set to a higher type is if that road is a '''connecting road''' between two roads with higher types. Promotion of a connecting road is only warranted if the road is signed from one road ''to'' the other. For example, a freeway exit may be signed as "to a particular highway", but the only way to get to that highway from the exit ramps is over a lesser road. Where such connections are supported by signage, the road type of the connecting road should match the lower of the two roads that it connects, up to major highway (In the USA a road may only ever be set to freeway if it meets the criteria of the generate [[Routing penalties#FreewaySegment properties|Freewaytransition penalties]] section). Promotion of connecting roads preserves routing continuity and prevents Waze from pruning out valid routes. In rare cases, when a route leaves them onto a particular different road may require a '''lower''' type than as prescribed in these rules. Contact your regional coordinator before lowering the type of any road past the bounds of the rulesSpecial rules are used to determine the road types of #* This can be useful for areas like [[Creating and Editing a roundabout#Road typePrivate Installations|roundaboutsprivate installations]] but can also cause dramatic and [[At-grade connectors#How to label the connector type|at-grade connectors]]. Road types do not affect naming. See [[Road names]]unexpected routing results.
=== {{@|Before editing}} ===
* [[Creating and Editing a roundabout]]
* [[At-grade connectors]]
 
Road types do not affect naming. See [[Road names]].
== {{@|Public roads}} ==
Public roads are those that can be driven by anyone. Naturally, they are by far the most important roads on the Waze map.
The {{Freeway}} and {{Ramp}} road types each have their own special rules. The {{Major Highway}}, {{Minor Highway}}, and {{Primary Street}} types are designated using a set of minimum criteria, as explained [[#Highways|below]].
{{mbox | type = warning | text = <div style="font-size:smaller">Public roads are designated by a series of '''minimum criteria'''.
If a road meets the criteria for multiple types, the highest of those types must be used, to satisfy every "at least" rule.</div>}}
=== Unpaved check box {{@|A hybrid system}} === Public road types in the United States are determined through a hybrid system of FHWA functional classification and U.S., state, and sometimes county highway systems. These systems work together to create a harmonious Waze map with excellent routing characteristics. Neither of these two facets of the road type system should be considered sufficient on its own, without the other. The road type guidance has been carefully crafted to join these two systems into one single contiguous Waze road type system. ==== {{@|Functional classification}} ==== Functional classifications (FC) are determined using a set of criteria selected by the [[Filewikipedia:CheckboxFederal Highway Administration|Federal Highway Administration]] (FHWA).pngThese criteria include not only the physical attributes of the road but also efficiency of travel, number of access points, speed limits, route spacing, actual usage, and continuity. This can lead to quite different classifications for roads that appear similar. For example, a six-lane divided road in an urbanized area may be a Collector (Primary Street); a two-lane road through the middle of a town may be a principal arterial (Major Highway). Functional classification is a national standard, but functional classification maps are published by state departments of transportation. Links to functional classification maps for each state can be found on [[National resources/Functional classification|50pxthe functional classification page]]. ==== {{@|Highway systems}} ====
The '''[[FIlewikipedia:Unpaved attribute.pngInterstate Highway System|90pxInterstate Highway System]] checkbox is an attribute that can be applied to any road type. It indicates that a road is not paved with asphalt or concrete. The unpaved attribute affects routing over driveable road types; it does not really affect non-driveable road types''' (formally, since the client does not use them for routingDwight D. Based on user preference, destination, Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways) is a nationwide network of freeways designated by Congress and other settings options, administered by the Waze client may avoid routing them over otherwise driveable segments when the 'unpaved' attribute is checked. FHWA and [[Filewikipedia:RoadPicN6.jpgAmerican Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials|right|300px|RoadPicN6.jpgAASHTO]]==== When to select , a nationwide organization of state departments of transportation with governmental support. The system facilitates high-speed travel throughout the Unpaved attribute ====nation.
The [[wikipedia:United States Numbered Highways|United States Numbered Highways]], or '''Any driveable road which is not paved with asphalt or concreteU.S. Highways''' should , system is a nationwide integrated network of roads also designated by Congress and administered by the FHWA and AASHTO. While many of the routes in this system have been superseded by the Unpaved attribute box checkedInterstate Highway System, they remain important as direct links between regions not served by the new system, and as alternatives to Interstate travel in the case of heavy traffic or incident.
<sub>Check your Each of the fifty states (along with the District of Columbia and some of the United States's overseas territories) has a numbered '''[[Mapping resourceswikipedia:state highway|state's pagehighway]] for details on whether there are additional guidelines for roads that are in system'''''uncommonly poor condition . These systems are designated and administered by local standards''''' or contact your [[Regional Coordinator]] their respective state legislatures and departments of transportation as statewide networks of important travel links between cities and communities of those states. The roads in these systems, while of lesser national importance, are nevertheless essential for further guidancetravel within the state.</sub>
==== User setting options for the Unpaved attribute ====This attribute has the unique property in that Waze users may select when not to be routed over unpaved road segments. Users may choose:* 'Dirt roads - Don't allow' - Avoids through-routing on all unpaved roads* 'Dirt roads - Avoid long ones' - Avoids through-routing on long unpaved roads* 'Dirt roads - Allow' - Allows through-routing that could include unpaved road(s) (i.e. ignores whether roads have the unpaved attribute checked) :''The Client still refers In addition to these settings as "Dirt Roads"their state highway systems, but it will be updated soon to read "Unpaved Roads". Rest assured they apply to this some states designate [[FIlewikipedia:Unpaved attribute.pngCounty highway|90pxcounty routes]] attribute, and not to the {{Offwhich are important for travel within a county. These routes serve important functions in a short-road}} typedistance capacity.
=== {{@|Highways}} ===
====Street {{Street|&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;}} {{Anchor|street|St|st}} {{@||Street}} ====
[[Image:RoadPicN4.jpg|right|400px200px]]
Any road for public travel which does not meet the criteria for any other type shall be classified as a {{Street}}. Shown as "local roads" in some functional classification maps; not shown at all in others.
{{clear}}
===={{@|Narrow StreetPassageway}}===={{Anchor|Narrow Street}}[[File:Alley.gif|right|100px200px|alt=alley]]{{As of |2018|0410|2331|df=us}}, the new road type {{Road|Narrow Street|style=background-color: #BEBA6CPassageway}} is available should not be used in the WMEUSA. The routing, display, and restriction details This road type is designed for other parts of {{Road|Narrow Street|style=background-color: #BEBA6C}} are not finalizedthe world, and it is not functional on the routing servers (it acts like a {{Street|Local Street}})where some public roads accomodate only vehicles narrower than cars. At this time, DO NOT use the {{Road|Narrow Street|style=background-color: #BEBA6CPassageway}} road type in the USA without explicit champ approval for each instance. 
==== {{@|Service Road}} ====
|}
</div>
 
===Exceptions===
 
If a road has a higher or lower type than what's specified in these rules, there may be a reason for it. Special rules are used to determine the road types of [[Creating and Editing a roundabout#Road type|roundabouts]] and [[At-grade connectors#How to label the connector type|at-grade connectors]].
 
==== Routing road type ====
Apart from changing the nominal road type, level {{rank|routing}} editors can also change the [[Creating and editing road segments#Special properties|routing road type]] (also known as routing preference) to one type higher or lower, which only affects [[Routing server#Changes in routes due to different route lengths|long-distance aspects]] of road type behavior while maintaining the same appearance, [[How Waze determines turn / keep / exit maneuvers#Best Continuation|best continuation]] and [[Detour Prevention Mechanisms|detour prevention behavior]] of the nominal road type. These exceptions to the rules should be reviewed with local leadership before implementation.
 
====Continuity====
[[File:35-71.png|thumb|300x300px|SR-435 has the Minor Arterial functional class , so it would normally have the Minor Highway road type in Waze. Since it is signed as the way from one Freeway (US-35) to another (I-71), its routing road type has been promoted to Major Highway, enabling the routing server to use it on routes from WV to IL. It's nominal road type remains Minor Highway to preserve appearance and detour prevention.]]
[[File:M55-66.png|thumb|300x300px|These Michigan State Trunkline Highways have the Minor Arterial functional class, so they would normally have the Minor Highway road type. However, even without signage indicating their longer-distance use, they have been upgraded to Major Highway in order to be used in routes between southwestern Michigan and the Upper Peninsula.]]
One common reason for a road to be set to a higher type is for the purpose of maintaining '''continuity''' between two roads with higher types. Promotion for continuity is usually indicated by signage: A certain less important road is signed as the way to get between two different more important roads.
 
For example, a freeway exit from I-70 is signed as "Exit 142: US-40 / Gratiot", indicating that this is the intended way to get to US-40, with Principal Arterial functional class. Between the ramps and US-40 is CR-30 with Local functional class. The rules on this page would normally dictate that this road be set to Primary Street, but in long-distance routing it may be removed from consideration, or '''[[Routing server#Pruning|pruned]]'''. This can be prevented either by assigning the Major Highway type outright or by assigning the Minor Highway type with a +1 routing road type, which would cause it to be treated like a Major Highway for long-distance routing. Use of routing road type is preferable to avoid unintended side effects on the behavior and display of the road.
 
Certain situations may require continuity upgrades even without signage to support them. Examples include but are not limited to:
* Sparsely populated areas connected by long roads with lower functional class
* Places where highway designations end abruptly, such as jurisdictional boundaries
* Alternate routes used as detours for main highways subject to frequent or long-term closures
* Urban or suburban areas in the midst of redevelopment, where functional class may be out of date
* Connecting roads that may be too short to be noticed during state functional class assignment
 
When promoting for continuity, the effective road type of the connecting road should match the ''lower'' of the two roads that it connects, similar to type selection for at-grade connectors, up to Major Highway. Since Major Highway is never pruned, there is no need to promote something to Freeway with routing road type for continuity reasons alone, and the nominal Freeway road type should only be used for controlled-access highways that meet the criteria [[#Freeway|above]].
 
Continuity upgrades prevent Waze from pruning out valid routes, and in extreme cases they can mean the difference between getting a good route and getting no route at all.
=== Unpaved checkbox [[File:Checkbox.png|50px]]===
 
The [[FIle:Unpaved attribute.png|90px]] checkbox is an attribute that can be applied to any road type. It indicates that a road is not paved with asphalt or concrete. The unpaved attribute affects routing over drivable road types; it does not really affect non-drivable road types, since the client does not use them for routing. Based on user preference, destination, and other settings options, the Waze client may avoid routing them over otherwise drivable segments when the 'unpaved' attribute is checked.
[[File:RoadPicN6.jpg|right|300px|RoadPicN6.jpg]]
==== When to select the Unpaved attribute ====
 
'''Any drivable road which is not paved with asphalt or concrete''' should have the Unpaved attribute box checked.
 
<sub>Check your [[Mapping resources|state's page]] for details on whether there are additional guidelines for roads that are in '''''uncommonly poor condition by local standards''''' or contact your [[Regional Coordinator]] for further guidance.</sub>
 
==== User setting options for the Unpaved attribute ====
This attribute has the unique property in that Waze users may select when not to be routed over unpaved road segments. Users may choose:
* 'Dirt roads - Don't allow' - Avoids through-routing on all unpaved roads
* 'Dirt roads - Avoid long ones' - Avoids through-routing on long unpaved roads
* 'Dirt roads - Allow' - Allows through-routing that could include unpaved road(s) (i.e. ignores whether roads have the unpaved attribute checked)
:''The Client still refers to these settings as "Dirt Roads", but it will be updated soon to read "Unpaved Roads". Rest assured they apply to this [[FIle:Unpaved attribute.png|90px]] attribute, and not to the {{Off-road}} type.
== {{@|Other drivable roads}} ==
=== Off-road / Not maintained Road {{Off-road|&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;}} {{anchor|Dirt|Dirt Road|Dirt road|Dirt road / 4X4 trail|4X4 Trail|4X4 trail|4x4 Trail|4x4 trail|dirt road}} {{@||Off-road / Not maintained road}} ===
{{mbox| type =critical| textstyle =font-style: italic;| text = OffUse extreme caution when mapping '''through roads''' with this type! In an emergency, such as wildfire or flooding, Waze responders may mark primary through roads in an area as closed on behalf of public safety. However, if off-road / Not maintained Road {{Offsegments appear to provide alternate through routes, and responders miss closing them, Waze may offer those segments instead '''regardless of penalty'''. Waze may also route using off-road|&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;}} segments if they appear to bypass private or fee-collection gates.{{anchorAs of|Dirt2018|Dirt Road|Dirt road|Dirt road / 4X4 trail|4X4 Trail|4X4 trail|4x4 Trail|4x4 trail|dirt road10}} {{@||Off-road / Not maintained road'''do not map through roads using this type''' unless you make certain that the roads (1) are passable, if only barely, by ordinary passenger vehicles or (2) would not be routed as alternate routes in emergencies or into restricted areas.}} ===
[[File:Off_Road_Not_Maintained.jpg|right|300px|Off_Road_Not_Maintained.jpg]]
{{Off-road}} roads are typically deeply rutted with thick mud, irregularly shaped rocks, fallen trees, branches, and deep streams, creeks, or river crossings. A typical car would bottom out, get stuck, or even break an axle trying to traverse these types of road segments. The vast majority of vehicles would not be traveling down these roads. This segment type should strictly be used by a type of hard terrain/special vehicle.
Currently, Waze does not plan to support a 4X4 vehicle type in the client app, but the developers have left this option Any road for editors to map these paths, so they can which high-clearance vehicles are recommended or required should be displayed on assigned the map. They have an extremely high penalty associated with them and will not be suggested in any routes in almost {{Off-road}} type, if it is mapped at all circumstances, regardless of its maintenance status.
Currently, Waze does not plan to support a 4X4 vehicle type in the client app, but the developers have left this option for editors to map these paths, so they can be displayed on the map. They have an extremely high penalty associated with them and will not be suggested for any through routes in most ordinary circumstances.
Check your [[Mapping resources|state page]] for details on whether your state follows unique guidelines for hard terrain/special vehicle roads, or contact your [[Regional Coordinator]] for further guidance. {{clear}}
 
=== Parking Lot Road {{PLR|&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;}} {{anchor|Parking lot road|PLR|plr|Plr}} {{@||Parking Lot Road}} ===
[[File:RoadPicN7.jpg|right|300px|RoadPicN7.jpg]] Parking lots, along with other publicly accessible roads such as '''alleys''' that should not be used for traffic routing unless directly at the start or end point of a route.
*Do not map the rows within parking lots because it clutters the map. See this additional page for [[Best map editing practice#Parking Lots|more details on how to map parking lots]].
{{mbox|type=caution|text=This section was updated {{As of |2015|01|14|df=us|lc=yes}} to clarify when to use {{PLR|PLR}} vs {{Private Road|Private Roads}}.}}
==== {{@|Emergency Vehicle and DOT Service Roads}} ====
[[File:Emergency.jpg|right|300px|Emergency.jpg]] Limited-access service roads, such as those marked for "emergency and authorized vehicles only" should not generally be mapped, and if there is a need to map them, they should not support routing nor appear like other roads. The clearest way to do this is to map them using the {{Private Road}} type, add [[partial restrictions]] on them to prohibit routing for all times and vehicle types and include a description within the restriction to explain the reason for mapping. Another, older method also involves using the {{Private Road}} type, disconnecting the limited-access road and locking as high as possible. This is also valid. Examples of such roads include fire roads prohibited to all non-service motor vehicles, patrol roads for park service vehicles, and service cutoffs across the medians of divided highways.
{{clear}}
=== {{@|Ferry}} ===
* Map rail yards simply, with one railroad segment along either edge of the yard's tracks.
* Map industrial spurs only if they cross drivable roads.
* Do not map '''every''' piece of parallel track, such as in sidings or yards, or industrial spurs that do not cross any roads. Your work may otherwise be seen as clutter, much like mapping every parking lot row.
* Multiple parallel lines at crossings:
** At most crossings, there should be only one railroad segment mapped and no more than two parallel railroads mapped at any crossing.
When a road or lane is designated for bus or taxi use only, mark that road segment(s) with an allowed time based segment restriction for bus and/or taxi. The entire segment, right lane, center lane, or middle lane can be selected as appropriate on the second pop up window of the time based segment restriction. This will prevent the Waze router from using that segment(s) for general traffic, since the majority of the users will not be able to use that lane. It will only route if the taxi or bus type of vehicle is set in the user's settings. (Taxi is currently available but bus is a potential future selection). Set the turn restrictions as appropriate for the legal usage by taxi and/or bus vehicles.
Change the road segment(s) to the proper Road Type road type based on the functional classification and the Waze correlation table. A {{Private Road|Private Road}} segment is '''no longer required'''.
If a road is one-way, but allows bus or taxi traffic to flow the other direction, leave the road as one-way with the normal flow of traffic, add the time based segment restriction for the Bus and/or Taxi in the appropriate direction. There is no need to create a second road traveling the opposite direction for the bus and taxi-only traffic.
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