Changes

From Wazeopedia

Road types

1,955 bytes added, 2 months ago
m
Emergency Vehicle and DOT Service Roads: typo
<br/>
== {{@|Overview}} ==
 
=== {{@|A hybrid system}} ===
 
Road types in the United States are determined through a hybrid system of FHWA functional classification and U.S., state, and sometimes county highway systems. These systems work together to create a harmonious Waze map with excellent routing characteristics. Neither of these two facets of the road type system should be considered sufficient on its own, without the other. The road type guidance has been carefully crafted to join these two systems into one single contiguous Waze road type system.
 
==== {{@|Functional classification}} ====
 
Functional classifications (FC) are determined using a set of criteria selected by the [[wikipedia:Federal Highway Administration|Federal Highway Administration]] (FHWA). These criteria include not only the physical attributes of the road but also efficiency of travel, number of access points, speed limits, route spacing, actual usage, and continuity. This can lead to quite different classifications for roads that appear similar. For example, a six-lane divided road in an urbanized area may be a Collector (Primary Street); a two-lane road through the middle of a town may be a principal arterial (Major Highway).
 
Functional classification is a national standard, but functional classification maps are published by state departments of transportation. Links to functional classification maps for each state can be found on [[National resources/Functional classification|the functional classification page]].
 
==== {{@|Highway systems}} ====
 
The '''[[wikipedia:Interstate Highway System|Interstate Highway System]]''' (formally, the Dwight D. Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways) is a nationwide network of freeways designated by Congress and administered by the FHWA and [[wikipedia:American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials|AASHTO]], a nationwide organization of state departments of transportation with governmental support. The system facilitates high-speed travel throughout the nation.
 
The [[wikipedia:United States Numbered Highways|United States Numbered Highways]], or '''U.S. Highways''', system is a nationwide integrated network of roads also designated by Congress and administered by the FHWA and AASHTO. While many of the routes in this system have been superseded by the Interstate Highway System, they remain important as direct links between regions not served by the new system, and as alternatives to Interstate travel in the case of heavy traffic or incident.
 
Each of the fifty states (along with the District of Columbia and some of the United States's overseas territories) has a numbered '''[[wikipedia:state highway|state highway]] system'''. These systems are designated and administered by their respective state legislatures and departments of transportation as statewide networks of important travel links between cities and communities of those states. The roads in these systems, while of lesser national importance, are nevertheless essential for travel within the state.
 
In addition to their state highway systems, some states designate [[wikipedia:County highway|county routes]] which are important for travel within a county. These routes serve important functions in a short-distance capacity.
=== {{@|Importance of road types}} ===
#* Since freeways are given the highest priority of all, having other high-type roads is necessary to provide viable alternatives to the routing server in case freeways are clogged with traffic.
# When viewing the map, more important roads should appear at the far zoom levels. Without proper types, the zoomed out display can be misleading.
 The {{Freeway}} and {{Ramp}} road types each have their own special rules. The {{Major Highway}}, {{Minor Highway}}, and {{Primary Street}} types are designated using a set of minimum criteria, as explained [[#Highways|below]]. ===Exceptions=== Occasionally, if deemed necessary for proper routing, a particular road's type may be set higher than as prescribed in these rules. If a road has a higher or lower type than what's specified in these rules, there may be a reason for it. Apart from changing the nominal road type, level {{rank|routing}} editors can also change the Certain [[Creating and editing road segments#Special propertiesOther drivable roads|routing other drivable road typetypes]] to one type higher or lower, which only affects generate [[Routing serverpenalties#Changes in routes due to different route lengthsSegment properties|long-distance aspectstransition penalties]] of road type behavior while maintaining the same appearance, [[How Waze determines turn / keep / exit maneuvers#Best Continuation|best continuation]] and [[Detour Prevention Mechanisms|detour prevention behavior]] of the nominal when a route leaves them onto a different road type. These exceptions to the rules should be reviewed with local leadership before implementationSpecial rules are used to determine the road types of [[Creating and Editing a roundabout#Road type|roundabouts]] and [[At-grade connectors#How to label the connector type|at-grade connectors]]. Road types do not affect naming. See [[Road names]]. ====Continuity====* This can be useful for areas like [[File:35-71.pngPrivate Installations|thumb|300x300px|SR-435 has the Minor Arterial functional class , so it would normally have the Minor Highway road type in Waze. Since it is signed as the way from one Freeway (US-35) to another (I-71), it has the routing road type Freeway, enabling the routing server to use it on routes from WV to IL.private installations]]One common reason for a road to be set to a higher type is for the purpose of maintaining '''continuity''' between two roads with higher types. Promotion for continuity is usually indicated by signage: A certain less important road is signed as the way to get between two different more important roads. When promoting for continuity, the effective road type of the connecting road should match the lower of the two roads that it connects. This prevents Waze from pruning out valid routes. For example, a freeway exit from I-70 is signed as "Exit 142: US-40 / Gratiot", indicating that this is the intended way to get to US-40, with Principal Arterial functional class. Between the ramps and US-40 is CR-30 with Local functional class. The rules on this page would normally dictate that this road be set to Primary Street, but in long-distance routing it may be removed from consideration. This can be prevented either by assigning the Major Highway type outright or by assigning the Minor Highway type with a +1 routing road type, which would also cause it to be treated like a Major Highway for long-distance dramatic and unexpected routingresults.
=== {{@|Before editing}} ===
* [[Creating and Editing a roundabout]]
* [[At-grade connectors]]
 
Road types do not affect naming. See [[Road names]].
== {{@|Public roads}} ==
Public roads are those that can be driven by anyone. Naturally, they are by far the most important roads on the Waze map.
The {{Freeway}} and {{Ramp}} road types each have their own special rules. The {{Major Highway}}, {{Minor Highway}}, and {{Primary Street}} types are designated using a set of minimum criteria, as explained [[#Highways|below]].
{{mbox | type = warning | text = <div style="font-size:smaller">Public roads are designated by a series of '''minimum criteria'''.
If a road meets the criteria for multiple types, the highest of those types must be used, to satisfy every "at least" rule.</div>}}
=== Unpaved check box {{@|A hybrid system}} === Public road types in the United States are determined through a hybrid system of FHWA functional classification and U.S., state, and sometimes county highway systems. These systems work together to create a harmonious Waze map with excellent routing characteristics. Neither of these two facets of the road type system should be considered sufficient on its own, without the other. The road type guidance has been carefully crafted to join these two systems into one single contiguous Waze road type system. ==== {{@|Functional classification}} ==== Functional classifications (FC) are determined using a set of criteria selected by the [[Filewikipedia:Checkbox.pngFederal Highway Administration|50pxFederal Highway Administration]]===(FHWA). These criteria include not only the physical attributes of the road but also efficiency of travel, number of access points, speed limits, route spacing, actual usage, and continuity. This can lead to quite different classifications for roads that appear similar. For example, a six-lane divided road in an urbanized area may be a Collector (Primary Street); a two-lane road through the middle of a town may be a principal arterial (Major Highway).
Functional classification is a national standard, but functional classification maps are published by state departments of transportation. Links to functional classification maps for each state can be found on [[National resources/Functional classification|the functional classification page]]. ==== {{@|Highway systems}} ==== The '''[[FIlewikipedia:Unpaved attribute.pngInterstate Highway System|90pxInterstate Highway System]] checkbox is an attribute that can be applied to any road type. It indicates that a road is not paved with asphalt or concrete. The unpaved attribute affects routing over drivable road types; it does not really affect non-drivable road types''' (formally, since the client does not use them for routingDwight D. Based on user preference, destination, Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways) is a nationwide network of freeways designated by Congress and other settings options, administered by the Waze client may avoid routing them over otherwise drivable segments when the 'unpaved' attribute is checked. FHWA and [[Filewikipedia:RoadPicN6.jpg|right|300pxAmerican Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials|RoadPicN6.jpgAASHTO]]==== When to select , a nationwide organization of state departments of transportation with governmental support. The system facilitates high-speed travel throughout the Unpaved attribute ====nation.
The [[wikipedia:United States Numbered Highways|United States Numbered Highways]], or '''Any drivable road which is not paved with asphalt or concreteU.S. Highways''' should , system is a nationwide integrated network of roads also designated by Congress and administered by the FHWA and AASHTO. While many of the routes in this system have been superseded by the Unpaved attribute box checkedInterstate Highway System, they remain important as direct links between regions not served by the new system, and as alternatives to Interstate travel in the case of heavy traffic or incident.
<sub>Check your Each of the fifty states (along with the District of Columbia and some of the United States's overseas territories) has a numbered '''[[Mapping resourceswikipedia:state highway|state's pagehighway]] for details on whether there are additional guidelines for roads that are in system'''''uncommonly poor condition . These systems are designated and administered by local standards''''' or contact your [[Regional Coordinator]] their respective state legislatures and departments of transportation as statewide networks of important travel links between cities and communities of those states. The roads in these systems, while of lesser national importance, are nevertheless essential for further guidancetravel within the state.</sub>
==== User setting options for the Unpaved attribute ====This attribute has the unique property in that Waze users may select when not to be routed over unpaved road segments. Users may choose:* 'Dirt roads - Don't allow' - Avoids through-routing on all unpaved roads* 'Dirt roads - Avoid long ones' - Avoids through-routing on long unpaved roads* 'Dirt roads - Allow' - Allows through-routing that could include unpaved road(s) (i.e. ignores whether roads have the unpaved attribute checked) :''The Client still refers In addition to these settings as "Dirt Roads"their state highway systems, but it will be updated soon to read "Unpaved Roads". Rest assured they apply to this some states designate [[FIlewikipedia:Unpaved attribute.pngCounty highway|90pxcounty routes]] attribute, and not to the {{Offwhich are important for travel within a county. These routes serve important functions in a short-road}} typedistance capacity.
=== {{@|Highways}} ===
====Street {{Street|&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;}} {{Anchor|street|St|st}} {{@||Street}} ====
[[Image:RoadPicN4.jpg|right|400px200px]]
Any road for public travel which does not meet the criteria for any other type shall be classified as a {{Street}}. Shown as "local roads" in some functional classification maps; not shown at all in others.
===={{@|Passageway}}====
{{Anchor|Narrow Street}}[[File:Alley.gif|right|100px200px|alt=alley]]{{As of |2018|10|31|df=us}}, the new road type {{Passageway}} should not be used in the USA. This road type is designed for other parts of the world, where some public roads accomodate only vehicles narrower than cars. At this time, DO NOT use the {{Passageway}} road type in the USA without explicit champ approval for each instance.
==== {{@|Service Road}} ====
|}
</div>
 
===Exceptions===
 
If a road has a higher or lower type than what's specified in these rules, there may be a reason for it. Special rules are used to determine the road types of [[Creating and Editing a roundabout#Road type|roundabouts]] and [[At-grade connectors#How to label the connector type|at-grade connectors]].
 
==== Routing road type ====
Apart from changing the nominal road type, level {{rank|routing}} editors can also change the [[Creating and editing road segments#Special properties|routing road type]] (also known as routing preference) to one type higher or lower, which only affects [[Routing server#Changes in routes due to different route lengths|long-distance aspects]] of road type behavior while maintaining the same appearance, [[How Waze determines turn / keep / exit maneuvers#Best Continuation|best continuation]] and [[Detour Prevention Mechanisms|detour prevention behavior]] of the nominal road type. These exceptions to the rules should be reviewed with local leadership before implementation.
 
====Continuity====
[[File:35-71.png|thumb|300x300px|SR-435 has the Minor Arterial functional class , so it would normally have the Minor Highway road type in Waze. Since it is signed as the way from one Freeway (US-35) to another (I-71), its routing road type has been promoted to Major Highway, enabling the routing server to use it on routes from WV to IL. It's nominal road type remains Minor Highway to preserve appearance and detour prevention.]]
[[File:M55-66.png|thumb|300x300px|These Michigan State Trunkline Highways have the Minor Arterial functional class, so they would normally have the Minor Highway road type. However, even without signage indicating their longer-distance use, they have been upgraded to Major Highway in order to be used in routes between southwestern Michigan and the Upper Peninsula.]]
One common reason for a road to be set to a higher type is for the purpose of maintaining '''continuity''' between two roads with higher types. Promotion for continuity is usually indicated by signage: A certain less important road is signed as the way to get between two different more important roads.
 
For example, a freeway exit from I-70 is signed as "Exit 142: US-40 / Gratiot", indicating that this is the intended way to get to US-40, with Principal Arterial functional class. Between the ramps and US-40 is CR-30 with Local functional class. The rules on this page would normally dictate that this road be set to Primary Street, but in long-distance routing it may be removed from consideration, or '''[[Routing server#Pruning|pruned]]'''. This can be prevented either by assigning the Major Highway type outright or by assigning the Minor Highway type with a +1 routing road type, which would cause it to be treated like a Major Highway for long-distance routing. Use of routing road type is preferable to avoid unintended side effects on the behavior and display of the road.
 
Certain situations may require continuity upgrades even without signage to support them. Examples include but are not limited to:
* Sparsely populated areas connected by long roads with lower functional class
* Places where highway designations end abruptly, such as jurisdictional boundaries
* Alternate routes used as detours for main highways subject to frequent or long-term closures
* Urban or suburban areas in the midst of redevelopment, where functional class may be out of date
* Connecting roads that may be too short to be noticed during state functional class assignment
 
When promoting for continuity, the effective road type of the connecting road should match the ''lower'' of the two roads that it connects, similar to type selection for at-grade connectors, up to Major Highway. Since Major Highway is never pruned, there is no need to promote something to Freeway with routing road type for continuity reasons alone, and the nominal Freeway road type should only be used for controlled-access highways that meet the criteria [[#Freeway|above]].
 
Continuity upgrades prevent Waze from pruning out valid routes, and in extreme cases they can mean the difference between getting a good route and getting no route at all.
=== Unpaved checkbox [[File:Checkbox.png|50px]]===
 
The [[FIle:Unpaved attribute.png|90px]] checkbox is an attribute that can be applied to any road type. It indicates that a road is not paved with asphalt or concrete. The unpaved attribute affects routing over drivable road types; it does not really affect non-drivable road types, since the client does not use them for routing. Based on user preference, destination, and other settings options, the Waze client may avoid routing them over otherwise drivable segments when the 'unpaved' attribute is checked.
[[File:RoadPicN6.jpg|right|300px|RoadPicN6.jpg]]
==== When to select the Unpaved attribute ====
 
'''Any drivable road which is not paved with asphalt or concrete''' should have the Unpaved attribute box checked.
 
<sub>Check your [[Mapping resources|state's page]] for details on whether there are additional guidelines for roads that are in '''''uncommonly poor condition by local standards''''' or contact your [[Regional Coordinator]] for further guidance.</sub>
 
==== User setting options for the Unpaved attribute ====
This attribute has the unique property in that Waze users may select when not to be routed over unpaved road segments. Users may choose:
* 'Dirt roads - Don't allow' - Avoids through-routing on all unpaved roads
* 'Dirt roads - Avoid long ones' - Avoids through-routing on long unpaved roads
* 'Dirt roads - Allow' - Allows through-routing that could include unpaved road(s) (i.e. ignores whether roads have the unpaved attribute checked)
:''The Client still refers to these settings as "Dirt Roads", but it will be updated soon to read "Unpaved Roads". Rest assured they apply to this [[FIle:Unpaved attribute.png|90px]] attribute, and not to the {{Off-road}} type.
== {{@|Other drivable roads}} ==
 
=== Off-road / Not maintained Road {{Off-road|&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;}} {{anchor|Dirt|Dirt Road|Dirt road|Dirt road / 4X4 trail|4X4 Trail|4X4 trail|4x4 Trail|4x4 trail|dirt road}} {{@||Off-road / Not maintained road}} ===
==== {{@|Emergency Vehicle and DOT Service Roads}} ====
[[File:Emergency.jpg|right|300px|Emergency.jpg]] Limited-access service roads, such as those marked for "emergency and authorized vehicles only" should not generally be mapped, and if there is a need to map them, they should not support routing nor appear like other roads. The clearest way to do this is to map them using the {{Private Road}} type, add [[partial restrictions]] on them to prohibit routing for all times and vehicle types and include a description within the restriction to explain the reason for mapping. Another, older method also involves using the {{Private Road}} type, disconnecting the limited-access road and locking as high as possible. This is also valid. Examples of such roads include fire roads prohibited to all non-service motor vehicles, patrol roads for park service vehicles, and service cutoffs across the medians of divided highways.
{{clear}}
=== {{@|Ferry}} ===
1,241
edits