Difference between revisions of "Junction Style Guide"

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== Simple is better ==
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When representing junctions (a.k.a. intersections, cross roads, corners, etc.) between roads, we sometimes have to blur the lines between the physical and logical worlds. The primary goal should be to represent things as simply as possible and only introduce complexity to deal with an issue.
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The following article contains key information on properly creating junctions and the roadways between them. Be sure to review it in its entirety before editing the map.
  
== The Basics &larr; START HERE ==
+
== Simple is better ==
 
 
A junction  is made up of three things:
 
# At least two roads
 
# One or more places these roads meet (a junction node)
 
# Turns allowed or restricted at those junction nodes
 
 
 
If you do not know how to create and modify roads, junctions, or turns, please read [[Map_Editing_Quick-start_Guide|the Map Editing Quick-start Guide]].
 
 
 
Lets start with the very basic case of one road branching off from another.  Most of the time they will probably meet at close to a 90 degree angle.  This is the simplest situation to deal with since the physical and logical views of the roads match up very well.
 
 
 
: [[Image:Jct_3_90.png]]
 
 
 
But you will probably find roads that meet at odd angles as well.  Even in urban areas with rigid grids, you will often find at least one road that has existed since prior to the establishment of the grid which cuts through town at strange angles.  The initial urge will be to represent the junction as it is in the physical world - two lines running into each other at some angle.
 
 
 
: [[Image:Jct_3_45.png]]
 
 
 
But there are issues with this method.  Depending on the angles, the client may give a "Keep Right" instruction to the driver when a "Turn Right" instruction is more appropriate.  In some cases, it is even possible the angle may be such that no instruction is given at all.  Or worse yet, the routing engine may determine that it isn't possible to make a very sharp angle and not suggest a turn (in the example image, headed south and then turning left to head east).
 
 
 
To eliminate ambiguity, we need to treat the junction from a logical point of view.  Since we want to be given basic "Turn Left" and "Turn Right" instructions, we have to treat it like it was a basic 90 degree intersection.  But how do we do that when the roads don't actually diverge at 90 degrees?  What we need to do is to add some geometry nodes to make the branch road leave the main road at close to 90 degrees, then we gradually curve to match the true departure angle.
 
 
 
: [[Image:Jct_3_45_curve.png]]
 
 
 
Now we have a junction that logically works like a basic 90 degree junction but it also fits the reality of the physical world.  Here is a completed real world example:
 
 
 
: [[Image:Jct_3_45_ex.png]]
 
 
 
A ramp to a highway is another good example where additional geometry nodes are helpful.  Especially since most ramps diverge at a very small angle from the road.
 
 
 
: [[Image:Jct_ramp_no_geo.png]]
 
 
 
The drawback in this case (which also exists for the side road example above!) is that it may be very hard to see and click on the turn restriction arrows in the editor.
 
 
 
: [[Image:Jct_ramp_no_geo_arrow.png]]
 
 
 
But if we just add one more geometry node to make the departure angle at the junction itself closer to 20 or 30 degrees...
 
 
 
: [[Image:Jct_ramp_w_geo.png]]
 
 
 
...now the arrows are visible and accessible.  Note that you can also press 's' in the editor to '''s'''pread or '''s'''eparate the arrows at a junction if you still have difficulty clicking on an arrow.  (see [[Keyboard_shortcut|Editor Keyboard Shortcuts]] for more tips.)
 
 
 
: [[Image:Jct_ramp_w_geo_arrow.png]]
 
 
 
We can easily scale the above approaches to a four-way junction.  Again we can expect to mostly see angles close to 90 degrees.
 
  
: [[Image:Jct_4_90.png‎ ]]
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When representing junctions, intersections, interchanges, cross roads, corners, etc., the Waze map does not need to perfectly match the road layouts it represents. The primary goal is to represent the real world as simply as possible in the maps and only introduce complexity in the maps to address complex issues.
  
And if we have that odd street cutting across town at an odd angle, we again want to avoid the odd angle at the junction...
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== The basics ==
 +
This guide requires a complete understanding of editing the maps with [[Waze Map Editor]] (WME).
  
: [[Image:Jct_4_45.png]]
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=== Map editing 101 ===
 +
Although it is highly recommended to read the [[editing manual]] before touching the map, it is required that you do not continue with this guide until you have read the following:
 +
* [[Map Editing Quick-start Guide|Map Editing Quick-start Guide]]
 +
* [[Creating and editing road segments#Junctions|Moving and removing junctions]]
  
...and we want to use geometry nodes to bring the actual junction to 90 degrees.  You can zoom in as close as you can and add a single geometry node on each side.  This will give us the proper angle but make it virtually invisible to users so it looks just like the physical world.
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=== Junction definition ===
 +
{| class="Wikitable floatright"
 +
| [[Image:Junction_selected.png|50px|border]]
 +
| [[Image:Uneditable_junction.png|50px|border]]
 +
| [[Image:junction_unsaved.png|50px|border]]
 +
|}
 +
The [[Glossary#Junction or Junction Point|Glossary on Junctions]] provides details on how junctions can appear differently in the editor depending on its state or condition.
  
: [[Image:Jct_4_45_curve.png]]
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A junction is made up of three things:
 
+
# Two or more road [[Creating and editing road segments|segments]]
The above image is what you would see zoomed in as close as possible.  Zoomed back out, it looks just like the image showing the junction without any geometry nodes.
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# One point where all the segments meet (the [[junction point]] itself)
 
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# [[Map Editing Quick-start Guide#Turn restrictions .28allowed turns.29|Turns allowed or restricted]] when traveling from one segment to another through that junction point
And here is a real world example at a zoom level where you can still see the geometry adjustment we added:
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{{clear}}
 
 
: [[Image:Jct_4_45_ex.png]]
 
  
 
== Controlling Turn Instructions ==
 
== Controlling Turn Instructions ==
 +
{| class="Wikitable floatright" cellpadding="5" border="1" style="text-align:center; border: 1px solid darkgray;"
 +
|-
 +
| Keep Right || Keep Left
 +
|-
 +
| Turn Right || Turn Left
 +
|-
 +
| Exit Right || Exit Left
 +
|}
 +
Turn instructions are critical for proper client navigation. They are controlled by:
 +
* The angle set between segments at junctions.
 +
* The road names.
 +
* The road types.
  
Before going further, make sure you understand the mechanics of [[Map_Editing_Quick-start_Guide#Turn_restrictions_.28allowed_turns.29|turn restrictions]] in the Map Editor.  If turns are not properly enabled and restricted, you will never get the instructions you desire.
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Review the article [[Junction Style Guide/Controlling turn instructions|controlling turn instructions]] for a complete understanding of the requirements and issues surrounding this topic.
 
 
In the Basics section above, we touched on how to ensure a "Turn left/right" instruction would be given over a "Keep left/right" instruction.
 
 
 
Details of the mechanics behind this can be found on the [[How_Waze_determines_turn_/_keep_/_exit_maneuvers|How Waze determines turn / keep / exit maneuvers]] page, but here is a quick summary.
 
=== Geometry ===
 
 
 
Some of the complexity of the back-end algorithms can be avoided if we try to treat junctions with the logical view in mind as was done in the previous examples.  If all junctions you edit follow just a few basic forms, it will be much easier to predict the behavior of an individual junction.
 
 
 
* Approximately '''90''' degree departure angle = '''Turn'''
 
* Between '''20 and 30''' degree departure angle = '''Keep''' (or Exit for Ramps)
 
 
 
This knowledge allows us to control how a junction behaves by modifying a single geometry node in most cases.  This is often useful for [[At-Grade_Connectors|At-Grade Connectors]] where sometimes we prefer a "Keep right/left" and other times a "Turn right/left" would be more appropriate.
 
 
 
If we keep the departure angle in the 20 to 30 degree range, we would get a "Keep Right" to follow the curved one-way connector:
 
 
 
: [[Image:Jct_at_grade_keep.png]]
 
 
 
But if we move one geometry node to create a 90 degree angle, now we would receive a "Turn Right" instruction.
 
 
 
: [[Image:Jct_at_grade_turn.png]]
 
 
 
Similar rules apply for the end of that segment as well.  If we have a 20 to 30 degree angle as pictured above, there will be no turn instruction as traffic just smoothly slides into the cross street.  But if we make the end of the segment close to a 90 degree angle, then there would be a turn right instruction for the driver.
 
 
 
=== Segment Naming and Type ===
 
 
 
Besides the geometry of the road segments, the names and types of the segments come into play.
 
 
 
A basic rule of thumb is that if you want a turn to be announced, having a different name will improve the chances (but not guarantee!!!) that it will happen.  For the At-Grade Connector example above, the connector should have a different name than the road it is leaving (See the [[At-Grade_Connectors#How_to_name_the_connector|How to name the connector]] section of the At-Grade Connectors page).
 
 
 
=== Highway/Freeway Junctions ===
 
These are junctions involving the three Highway/Freeway road types - Minor Highway, Major Highway, and Freeway -- as well as their Ramps.
 
==== Highway/Freeway Exits ====
 
It is considered to be a basic Exit situation when a "straight" direction is obvious to a driver and navigation instructions are only needed for the non-straight direction (the exit).  If navigation instructions are required for both directions, see the [[#Highway/Freeway_Splits|Highway/Freeway Splits]] section below.
 
 
 
To be treated as a basic Exit, the following must be true:
 
# The entering segment and one exiting segment must be one of the three Highway/Freeway types
 
# The Highway/Freeway exiting segment must have close to a zero degree departure angle from the entering segment
 
# The second exiting segment must be of type Ramp
 
# The Ramp exiting segment must had a departure angle of between 20 and 30 degrees from the entering segment
 
 
 
With those conditions met, the junction will present an "Exit Right/Left" navigation instruction when the ramp is used and will remain silent with no navigation instructions at all when using the Highway/Freeway exiting segment.
 
 
 
==== Highway/Freeway Splits ====
 
We will consider it to be a Highway/Freeway Split when we have a Highway/Freeway segment meeting at a junction with two other Highway/Freeway segments and there is no obvious straight through direction to a driver.  To receive a navigation instruction for '''both''' branches of a split, the following must be true:
 
# All segments must be one of the 3 Highway/Freeway Types
 
# All segments must have names which are different from each other
 
# The two exiting segments must have departure angles of 20 to 30 degrees from the entering segment
 
# The segment can be short, but it should be large enough that it is not hard to find in the editor ''(too subjective, we probably need a minimum length guideline)''
 
 
 
With those conditions met, the junction will present "Keep Left" and "Keep Right" navigation instructions using the name of the appropriate exiting segment.
 
 
 
==== Ramp to Ramp Splits ====
 
A ramp may itself split and branch into two directions.  If this is the case, "Exit Right" and "Exit Left" will be announced using the name of the appropriate exiting segment in all cases.
 
 
 
=== Surface Street Junctions ===
 
==== Y Intersections ====
 
 
 
Surface streets occasionally meet in a Y formation and we must carefully consider how they must be arranged to provide useful navigation instructions.  As the [[How_Waze_determines_turn_/_keep_/_exit_maneuvers|How Waze Determines turn/keep/exit maneuvers]] page explains, segment names and geometry is very important in determining what navigation instructions are (or are not) given.
 
 
 
In the example below, the multi-lane surface street is known as Main Street to the west and Atlantic Ave to the east.  The name change occurs when Main St branches off as a regular surface street.
 
 
 
: [[Image:Jct_Y_ex_aerial.png]]
 
 
 
The description above is how a human would probably describe the situation, but as you can see in the image above, a more technical description would be that Main St travels in a perfectly straight line and Atlantic Ave branches off of it.  But if we map it that way in the editor, we create a major problem.
 
  
: [[Image:Jct_Y_ex_map_bad.png]]
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== Surface Streets ==
  
Since the multi-lane segment of Main St and the regular street segment of Main St have the same name, the routing engine automatically considers that to be "straight". If the two sections line up in a straight line the way they appear from the sky, then we are reinforcing the idea that straight is Main St to Main St.
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=== Intersections ===
 +
{| class="Wikitable floatright"
 +
| [[File:Jct 3 90.png|x100px|border]]
 +
| [[File:Jct 4 90.png|x100px|border]]
 +
| [[File:Jct ramp no geo.png|x100px|border]]
 +
|-
 +
| colspan="3"|[[File:4waysplitsplit.png|border|center|169x169px]]
 +
|}
 +
Basic intersections involve three or four road segments meeting at a single point. Some more complex variations resemble H or # shapes.
  
But as a driver on the road, straight will be the path that remains on the multi-lane roadway, regardless of what the name is. So to make sure the routing engine "understands" the proper treatment of the junction, we have to be deliberate with the segment geometry of all three involved segments. In the end, we end up with something like this:
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In all cases it is important to configure these intersections properly. Detailed information is covered in the [[Junction Style Guide/Intersections|Intersections]] article.
 +
{{clear}}
  
: [[Image:Jct_Y_ex_map.png‎]]
 
  
Now the geometric definition of straight is multi-lane Main St to Atlantic Ave since we have made that transition as close to zero degrees as possible.  With the regular street version of Main St now branching off at a very obvious angle, the routing engine should recognize that a turn is required.  So the end result is that Main St to Atlantic has no turn announced and Main St to Main St has a turn announced.  Exactly what drivers would expect in the real world.
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=== No Outlet Roads ===
  
== No Outlet Roads ==
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Roads which only have one way in and one way out can present challenges to the routing server, although they seem simple to our minds.
  
Roads which only have one way in and one way out can present challenges to the routing server although they seem simple to the human mind.
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==== Dead Ends ====
  
=== Dead Ends ===
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Dead Ends (a.k.a. No Exit, Closed, No Through Road, No Outlet) are road segments that simply end, with no continuation or connections at one end. In some areas, a Dead End may be synonymous with a [[#Cul-de-sacs|Cul-de-sac]]. In the US, a "No Outlet" sign may be used to indicate a road which itself is not a dead end, but it only connects to other dead end roads. It can also be used as a "friendlier" alternative to the typical Dead End sign.
  
Dead Ends (a.k.a. No Exit, Close, No Through Road, No Outlet) are road segments that simply end with no continuation or connections at one end. In some areas, a Dead End may be synonymous with a [[#Cul-de-sacs|Cul-de-sac]].  In the US, a "No Outlet" sign may be used to indicate a road which itself is not a dead end, but it only connects to other dead end roads.  It can also be used as a "friendlier" alternative to the typical Dead End sign.
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Within the Map Editor it is possible to represent a dead end road with multiple segments if there are private driveways or parking lot roads mapped and connected. In that case, only the very last segment is considered the dead end segment.
  
Within the Map Editor it is possible to represent a dead end road with multiple segments if there are private driveways or parking lot roads mapped and connected. In that case, only the very last segment is considered the dead end segment.
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[[File:Jct dead end.png|left|border]]
 +
Make sure that there is a junction indicator (the small blue dot, not just a geometry node) at the very end of the segment. While this one segment does not actually constitute a junction, the small blue dot is a visual indicator to the editor that the end of this segment is properly set up. This is necessary to ensure proper routing out of the segment. See the Cul-de-sac section below on when and how to fix this.
  
Make sure that there is a junction node (not just a geometry node) at the very end of the segment. This is necessary to ensure proper routing out of the segment.
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[[File:Jct dead end ex.png|right|border|200px]]
 +
This final junction indicator must be located near the end of the road, but it should be located where there is still pavement as not to negatively impact client routes. Waze only considers the road fully traversed if both ends of the segment are fully crossed. If the junction indicator at the end of the segment happens to be at the edge of the pavement (or off of the road surface if aerials are not exactly aligned), it will be very difficult for a driver to cross that junction. A good rule of thumb is to have the end of the segment the same distance from the end of the pavement as it is from each side of the road.
  
: [[Image:Jct_dead_end.png]]
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With such a placement, the driver is given a chance to cross that junction indicator for that segment. Also check for the proper u-turn setting as covered in the [[Map Editing Quick-start Guide#U-Turns at the end of dead-end-streets|best practices article on u-turns]].
  
=== Cul-de-sacs ===
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==== Cul-de-sacs ====
  
 
''See also: [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cul-de-sac Cul-de-sac article on Wikipedia]''
 
''See also: [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cul-de-sac Cul-de-sac article on Wikipedia]''
Line 162: Line 94:
 
A Cul-de-sac (a.k.a. Court in the US) is a common treatment of a dead end street in a residential neighborhood.
 
A Cul-de-sac (a.k.a. Court in the US) is a common treatment of a dead end street in a residential neighborhood.
  
In almost every situation, a cul-de-sac should be treated exactly as a dead end street, with the final junction node in the bulb of the cul-de-sac.
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In almost every situation, a cul-de-sac should be treated exactly as a dead end street, with the final junction indicator in the center of the bulb of the cul-de-sac. Be sure the free end of the final road segment has small blue dot displayed at the tip (when not editing or selecting the segment). If there is no blue dot, please correct it by following the steps for  [[Creating and editing road segments#Fix the end-node on cul-de-sacs and dead-ends|fixing dead ends]].
  
: [[Image:Jct_cul-de-sac_ex.png]]
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[[Image:Jct_cul-de-sac_ex.png|left|border]]
 +
The junction indicator should be located close to the middle of the bulb and NOT near the outer edges. If the end of the segment is positioned along the perimeter of the bulb, there may be difficulty in processing client routes. Waze only considers the road fully traversed if both ends of a segment are crossed. If the end of the segment happens to be on the curb (or off of the road surface if aerials are not exactly aligned), it will be very difficult for a driver to cross the end of the road segment. With the junction in the middle of the visual road, we give a driver a good chance to cross the end of the segment no matter where they drive within the bulb.  The exception to this guidance is given in the next example.
 +
{{clear}}
  
If the cul-de-sac has a very large bulb with an island in the middle, it may better be treated as a [[#Loops|Loop]] if the size truly significant.  A simple dead end should be our initial design though, and a Loop only used if problems with "Missing Road" errors occur.
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{| class="Wikitable floatright"
 +
| [[Image:Jct_cul-de-sac_island_ex.png|200px|border]]
 +
| [[Image:Jct_cul-de-sac_island_ex_road.png|border|200px]]
 +
|}
 +
This cul-de-sac, with a small island, should be treated as a basic dead end with no loop. The island can be ignored, as there is no significant routing question for the driver once they get to the cul-de-sac.
  
=== Loops ===
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As for placement of the final junction indicator, here we may get better results by moving the junction out from the true center and over to the outer perimeter of the central island. The shift ensures that the driver has a good opportunity to cross the end of the segment.
 +
{{clear}}
  
Loops are roads that you can enter and without turing around, end up at the same place you started.
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However, if the cul-de-sac has a very large bulb with a large island in the middle, it may better be treated as a [[#Loops|Loop]]. A good rule of thumb is if you were standing at the end of the cul-de-sac, can you tell that it is just a cul-de-sac?  Or does it look like two different roads?  If you see an island, but are not sure if it is significant, leave the Loop out. If "Missing Road" errors occur on the road, then add a Loop.
  
The important Map Editor rule we must follow is: '''a road segment must ''not'' start and end on the same junction node'''.
+
=== Loops ===
 
+
<gallery mode="packed-hover">
If this rule is not followed, the routing server will have difficulty in providing routes into and out of the loop.
+
File:U-shaped Road.jpg|U-shaped road
 +
File:Jct loop bulb.png|terminal or dead-end loop
 +
</gallery>
 +
Road segments form a loop when you can trace a path from a starting point around to the same point without retracing any portion of the traced path.
  
Hopefully there will be another roadway along the loop road which you can map, which will break the loop into two pieces and avoid the problem. But if there are no interruptions to the loop and the entire loop is represented by one road segment that doubles back on itself, we have a problem
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==== Every loop must be made up of three or more segments ====
 +
[[File:Loop_3-part_6.jpg|right|150px]]Any loop that does not follow this rule can cause problems for the Waze routing server. If there is no side-street, you must [[Map Editing Quick-start Guide#Splitting a segment|insert an extra junction node]] along the loop. Many new editors will see the extra junction node(s), assume they are not needed, and delete them. Please educate new editors.
  
To properly handle this situation, we must [[Map_Editing_Quick-start_Guide#Splitting_a_segment|insert a superfluous junction node]] along the loop segment. The specific location does not matter, but most people put it near the half-way point of the segment and/or opposite of the true junction node.
+
====Two-segment loops====
 +
Two-segment loops create a situation called "same endpoint drivable segments" or "same connection segments". There are two or more ways to get from one junction node to another without going through any other nodes. They can cause a problem for the Waze app regardless of the direction, or other attributes of the segments. This is because the routing server gives your mobile app a list of node IDs only, but the app needs to tell you which segments to drive on. If there are two ways to get from one node to the next without going through any other nodes, then the Waze app might just have to guess. It might guess a detour off the highway through a service road or scenic overlook. Please save Waze from this silliness. Correct two-segment loops.
  
: [[Image:Jct_loop_bulb.png]] [[Image:Jct_loop_square.png]]
+
====One-segment loops====
 +
{{anchor|Loop_save_errors}}
 +
[[File:Dead end loop.png|thumb|right]] One-segment or self-connected loops are often found in basemap areas. It is difficult for Waze editors to create one-segment loops. Depending on the situation, these should be converted to three-segment loops or simple dead-end roads. For more on loops on dead-end roads, please see [[Cul-de-sac#Cul-de-sacs|cul-de-sac]].  It is important to preserve house number data on these segments.
 +
===== Fixing one-segment loops=====
 +
If you try to edit a one-segment loop, but then cannot save the changes, undo your changes and then try one of the following to fix it:
  
'''NOTE:''' It is very easy for you or another editor to find the superfluous junction node, assume it is truly superfluous, and delete it!  This problem is magnified if the loop road is large or shaped in a way where it is not obvious that it is a loop.  So if you can identify a road to map along the loop, even if it is a parking lot, that would provide a more "permanent" treatment of the loop since the superfluous junction node now serves an obvious purpose.
+
*If the loop and the road leading to it have the '''same''' name
 +
*#Select the loop and the road.
 +
*#Click the bridge icon that appears (one end of the loop will disconnect from the other)
 +
*#Move the now free end of the loop so it is slightly separated
 +
*#Save
 +
*If the loop and the road leading to it have '''different''' names
 +
*#Draw a new road segment that connects to the loop/road junction
 +
*#Give that new road the same exact name as the loop
 +
*#Select the loop and the new road segment
 +
*#Click the bridge icon that appears (one end of the loop will disconnect from the other)
 +
*#Move the now free end of the loop so it is slightly separated
 +
*#Save
 +
*Create a dead end road or a three-segment dead-end loop as appropriate.
 +
*Fix elevations.
 +
*Confirm turns.
  
== Roundabouts and Traffic Circles ==
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Here is a [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a7yAzG7HElw video on YouTube showing the second method].
 +
{{#widget:YouTube|id=a7yAzG7HElw}}
  
: [[Image:Jct_roundabout.png]]
+
[[Image:Jct_roundabout.png|frameless|right]]
  
Please see the [[Roundabout]] page for a full discussion of this special type of junction.
+
===Roundabouts and traffic circles===
 +
It may be tempting to use the roundabout feature to create a loop shape. Do not do this unless the loop is a roundabout or traffic circle. Roundabouts give special routing instructions, and must not be used for other purposes. To learn more, please see the [[Roundabout]] page.
  
== At-Grade Connectors ==
+
=== At-grade connectors ===
  
 
: [[Image:Jct_at_grade_keep.png]]
 
: [[Image:Jct_at_grade_keep.png]]
  
Make sure you don't confuse these segments for ramps!  And watch out for turns you need to restrict.  For a full discussion, see the [[At-Grade_Connectors|At-Grade Connectors]] page.
+
With exceptions, don't set these segments as ramps!  Watch out for all of the turns you need to restrict.  For a more detailed discussion, see the full [[At-grade connectors]] article.
  
== Ramps ==
+
== Interchanges and ramps ==
  
Ramps have a very specific purpose in Waze.  They are intended to connect segments of Minor Highways, Major Highways, and Freeways to roads where there are no at-grade crossings.
+
An '''interchange''' is a road junction where two roads are connected by dedicated roadways, called '''ramps'''. The roads connected by an interchange do not intersect one another directly, and if they cross, the crossing is grade-separated.
  
 
=== When to use ramps ===
 
=== When to use ramps ===
  
The following conditions must be met for the use of ramps to be appropriate:
+
Use of the {{Ramp}} type is governed by the following rules:
# Two roads cross over/under each other with no at-grade junction
+
* [[Road types]]
# At least one of the roads are of these types
+
* [[At-grade connectors]]
## Minor Highway
 
## Major Highway
 
## Freeway
 
## Ramp
 
 
 
If the above requirements are not satisfied, you may be dealing with an [[#At-Grade_Connectors|At-Grade Connector]].
 
 
 
=== How complex should ramps be? ===
 
 
 
Rule #1 is still simpler is better.  So unless there is a large deviation of distance between paths at the end of a ramp (either into or out of the ramp as appropriate), a single segment connecting to a single junction node is all that is needed.  The simple existence of a painted, concrete, or grass island is '''NOT''' enough of a reason to split a ramp into multiple ramps.
 
 
 
: [[Image:Jct_ramp_no_split.png]]
 
 
 
Once paths at the end of the ramp deviate significantly in distance, regardless of the existence of any type of island, then it is time to consider multiple ramps.
 
 
 
: [[Image:Jct_ramp_split.png]]
 
 
 
== Limited Access Interchanges ==
 
''See also: [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interchange_(road) Wikipedia article on Road Interchanges]''
 
 
 
When two roads meet in a limited access interchange (any situation where travel between grade separated roads is facilitated by ramps or slip roads alone), extra care must be taken.
 
 
 
If an exit ramp lines up with an entrance ramp, care must be taken to restrict the straight through direction to prevent "ramp-to-ramp routing" where the routing engine may try to take a shortcut from the Freeway, to the exit ramp, to the entrance ramp, and back to the Freeway instead of staying on the Freeway. That motion is inefficient and may be illegal in certain jurisdictions.
 
 
 
'''Care must be taken to not enable all turns in any situation where ramps meet unless all possible flows of traffic have been considered!'''
 
 
 
We also have to pay attention to the '''Level''' of the road segments since there will typically be many bridges and overpasses for any limited access interchange.  If two roads cross without connecting, their levels must be different.
 
 
 
The following sections discuss some of the common Interchange designs.  Note that some Interchanges may be a hybrid of these basic designs where one side or quadrant of the interchange may differ from the others.
 
 
 
=== Diamond Interchange ===
 
: [[Image:Jct_diamond.png]]
 
''See also: [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diamond_interchange Diamond Interchange article on Wikipedia]''
 
 
 
Common in wide open spaces where land acquisition and geography are not concerns, this Interchange design has ramps equally distributed across all 4 quadrants.
 
 
 
In the simplest form, this can be represented as single connections from the ramps to the surface street.
 
 
 
Note: Be sure to restrict the straight through motion from the exit ramp onto the entrance ramp on the other side of the road. This will prevent the routing server from trying to route someone off the freeway just to get back on it. Even though it may be a legal direction for a vehicle, turn restrictions are only for controlling routing directions.
 
  
: [[Image:Jct_diamond_simple_turns.png]]
+
=== Ramp and interchange style ===
  
If the ramps connect to the surface street at multiple points (be sure to read [[#How_complex_should_ramps_be?|How complex should ramps be?]], we have to avoid ramp-to-ramp routing as well as illegal turns which should use another ramp. First we see the turns that must be restricted for the exit ramps:
+
For guidance on the proper configuration of ramps, interchanges and wayfinders, see [[Junction Style Guide/Interchange]].
  
: [[Image:Jct_diamond_cplx_turns_off_L.png]] [[Image:Jct_diamond_cplx_turns_off_R.png]]
+
== Special Cases ==
 +
=== Transitions ===
 +
{| class="Wikitable floatright"
 +
| [[Image:Jct_transition.png|x150px|border]]
 +
| [[Image:Jct_transition_90.png|x150px|border]]
 +
|}
 +
A transition is a non-junction depicted using a junction node.
  
Then we see what must be restricted for the entrance ramps:
+
Valid examples of where to use a Transition node include:
 +
# Road name changes
 +
# City Limits
 +
# Road Direction changes
 +
# Part of a [[#Loops|Loop Road]]
 +
# Speed Limit Change
  
: [[Image:Jct_diamond_cplx_turns_on.png]]
+
Before the current house numbering system came into use, transition nodes were used to aid in house numbering, but that is no longer required.
  
'''Note on Levels:'''
+
There may be existing transition nodes on the map for other reasons like remaining after a connecting road is deleted, inherited from the original base map import when rivers and streams created junctions, etc.
The single surface street segment between the inner most ramps should be either raised or lowered in relation to the freeway segments depending on the actual geography at the interchange.
 
  
=== Cloverleaf Interchange ===
+
As long as you are '''certain''' it is not a valid transition node, a superfluous junction node may be [[Map Editing Quick-start Guide#Delete a Junction|deleted]]. Doing so will simplify the map, eliminate turn restrictions to maintain, and reduce computing resource needs. Also consider removing the [[Creating and editing road segments#Adjusting road geometry .28nodes.29|geometry node]] which will replace the junction node you delete, if that geometry node is not needed.
: [[Image:Jct_cloverleaf.png]]
 
  
''See also: [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cloverleaf_interchange Cloverleaf Interchange article on Wikipedia]''
+
=== Roads to Nowhere ===
 +
In certain situations it may be necessary to add road segments that are un-drivable in order to provide accurate navigation instructions.
  
In a Cloverleaf Interchange, left turns are eliminated from all movements between the Freeway and the surface street. First check the exit ramps.
+
==== Actual ====
 +
A valid use of this technique is at the temporary end of a freeway. As a freeway is built, it is often opened in sections, up to a certain exit. If we map this as a regular freeway segment leading to a ramp segment, no announcement will be made for that final exit, no matter what we name the exit ramp.
  
: [[Image:Jct_cloverleaf_off_outer_turns.png]] [[Image:Jct_cloverleaf_off_inner_turns.png]]
+
This can be confusing if the ramp is set up as a properly signed and numbered exit, especially if a driver is traveling a long distance on this freeway. Imagine traveling down a freeway and seeing your next instruction is "turn left at Main St." You would probably wonder if there was a map error since you shouldn't be making a left turn off of a freeway.
  
Then check the entrance ramps for illegal turns.
+
If we map even just a little of the future path of the freeway, this gives the routing engine a junction which will generate an "exit" instruction at the end of the freeway, thus eliminating any confusion.
  
: [[Image:Jct_cloverleaf_on_turns.png]]
+
Conversely, if we do NOT want an exit instruction at the end of a freeway, ensure there are no road segments extending past the final exit, to ensure the final exit is the only path out of the final freeway segment.
  
The connections to the Freeway segments may be treated in two ways:
 
 
:[[Image:Jct_cloverleaf_options.png]]
 
 
# (top) we can have the inner entrance and exit ramps have their own junction nodes with the Freeway.
 
# (bottom) we can have the entrance and exit ramps share a single junction node with the Freeway.  This allows us to eliminate the very short Freeway segment that may exist between the inner entrance and exit ramps.<br />It is best to offset this shared junction onto the Entrance ramp side of the surface street.  This prevents the junction from accidentally being connected to the surface street or looking like it does.  We favor the Entrance ramp side, because this would result in a slightly earlier exit instruction which is of course preferred over a late exit instruction.
 
 
The determining factor of which design to use will partly depend on the actual size and scale of the specific interchange.
 
 
'''Note on Levels:'''
 
The single surface street segment between the inner most ramps should be either raised or lowered in relation to the freeway segments depending on the actual geography at the interchange.
 
 
=== Folded Diamond ===
 
: [[Image:Jct_folded_diamond.png]]
 
''See also: Discussion of Folded Diamonds and A2/B2 Partial Cloverleafs on the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Partial_cloverleaf_interchange Partial Cloverleaf Interchange article on Wikipedia]''
 
 
Geography or property ownership may prevent the ability for an interchange to be constructed with all ramps evenly distributed across the 4 quadrants of the interchange.  When only two quadrants are used, it is typically called a Folded Diamond (basically a sub-type of a Partial Cloverleaf Interchange).  The ramps may be all on one side (as in the examples in this section) or they may be located in diagonally opposed quadrants.
 
 
The unique situation presented by the Folded Diamond arrangement is having both Entrance and Exit ramps terminating on the same side of the surface street.  Ideally both ramps should terminate on the same junction node to permit us to easily restrict the illegal and usually impossible ramp-to-ramp movement.
 
 
: [[Image:Jct_folded_diamond_u-turn.png]]'
 
 
Like with a basic Diamond Interchange, often it will be necessary to represent the ramps making multiple connections to the surface street (Be sure to read [[#How_complex_should_ramps_be?|How complex should ramps be?]].  Restrict all non-permitted turns.
 
 
: [[Image:Jct_folded_diamond_off_turns_L.png]] [[Image:Jct_folded_diamond_off_turns_R.png]] [[Image:Jct_folded_diamond_on_turns.png]]
 
 
'''Note on Levels:''' Similar to a basic Diamond interchange, in most cases only the segment of the surface street that crosses the Freeway segments will need to be adjusted up or down.
 
 
=== Single Point Urban Interchange (SPUI) ===
 
: [[Image:Jct_SPUI.png]]
 
''See also: [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Single-point_urban_interchange Single Point Urban Interchange article on Wikipedia]''
 
 
A SPUI is a very space and flow efficient design, but it takes extra attention to ensure the turns are correct.  And as the name indicates, ideally there should be a single junction in the center.  You may need to tweak the geometry of segments a bit off of alignment from the real physical world, but it should be minor if the interchange is a true SPUI.
 
 
The outer branches of the exit ramps are very much like in the case of a diamond interchange:
 
 
: [[Image:Jct_SPUI_off_outer_turn.png]]
 
 
Where things get complicated is the inner branches leading to the Single Point.  You need to avoid ramp-to-ramp in two directions and a reverse flow turn.  '''Note:''' The ramp-to-ramp motion to facilitate a U-Turn (the top left arrow in the image below) may or may not be allowed depending on the specific interchange.  Please validate this turn.
 
 
: [[Image:Jct_SPUI_off_inner_turn.png]]
 
 
Luckily the entrance ramp restrictions are similar to the diamond interchange:
 
 
: [[Image:Jct_SPUI_on_turn.png]]
 
 
If you were to look at all the restricted turns at once, you may get the false impression that something is very wrong.  But as you now know, a SPUI has almost as many restricted turns as allowed ones.
 
 
: [[Image:Jct_SPUI_all_turns.png]]
 
 
'''Note on Levels:'''
 
The two surface street segments (between the outer ramps and connected to the Single Point) and the 4 ramp segments connected to the single point should all be the same level, either one higher or one lower than the level of the freeway segments above/below the single point.
 
 
== Oddities ==
 
 
=== Offset Roads ===
 
=== Offset Roads ===
Sometimes you will find two roads which cross where one does not quite line up exactly from one side to the other.
+
[[Image:Jct_4_offset.png|left|x150px|border]]
 +
Sometimes you will find two roads which cross, where one does not quite line up with the other.
  
: [[Image:Jct_4_offset.png]]
+
There are a few things we need to look at in this situation.
 +
{{clear}}
 +
:* Do the roads actually line up in reality? If so we need to modify the junction to be a basic 4-way junction.
 +
{| class="Wikitable floatright"
 +
|[[Image:Jct_4_offset_align.png|x150px|border]]
 +
|[[Image:Jct_4_offset_align_ex.png|x150px|border]]
 +
|}
 +
:* Do the roads ALMOST line up in reality? If you were giving instructions to a person and would tell them to go straight with no mention of any slight turn or jog, then we want to make it into a 4-way junction. You may need to "split the difference" and not follow the centerline of either road to achieve this. The angles are exaggerated in this next example to show how the junction is forced to be close to 90 degrees, then we taper to the true centerlines of the roads. In practice this can be much more gradual and/or done while zoomed in very close.
 +
[[Image:Jct_4_offset_ex.png|right|x150px|border]]
 +
:* Finally, is there a true separation between the roads? Would you need to say for example "turn left then make an immediate right"? If so then we will want to leave the junction such that the two sides do not align.
 +
{{clear}}
  
There are a few things we need to look at in this situation.
+
[[Image:Jct_4_offset_sep_ex.png|left|x150px|border]]
 +
Since we want to avoid very short segments of road (the GPS chips in consumer devices can be very inaccurate which may make it seem that a driver skipped right over a short segment. This will result in [[Map Problems in Waze Map Editor|automated map errors]] and possible route recalculations in the client,) it may be wise to shift the side roads as far apart from each other as possible with them still in the proper location (along the far curb lines for a residential street for example).  This will maximize the length of the short segment between the side roads.
  
# Do the roads actually line up in reality?  If so we need to modify the junction to be a basic 4-way junction.
+
[[Category:Style Guide]]
# Do the roads ALMOST line up in reality?  If you were giving instructions to a person and would tell them to go straight with no mention of any slight turn or jog, then we want to make it into a 4-way junction.  You may need to "split the difference" and not follow the centerline of either road to achieve this.  The angles are exaggerated in this next example to show how the junction is forced to be close to 90 degrees, then we taper to the true centerlines of the roads.  In practice this can be much more gradual and/or only done while zoomed in very close.<br/>[[Image:Jct_4_offset_align.png]] [[Image:Jct_4_offset_align_ex.png]]<br/>
+
[[Category:Table examples]]
# Finally, is there a true separation between the roads?  Would you need to say for example "turn left then make an immediate right"?  If so then we will want to leave the junction such that the two sides do not align.<br />[[Image:Jct_4_offset_ex.png]]<br />Since we want to avoid very short segments of road, it may be wise to shift the side roads as far apart from each other as possible with them still in the proper location (along the far curb lines for a residential street for example).  This will maximize the length of the short segment between the side roads.<br /> [[Image:Jct_4_offset_sep_ex.png]]
 

Latest revision as of 14:57, 23 May 2019

Images are going to be added to clarify these instructions.
This revision of the page is currently undergoing modifications. The information and guidance is currently considered accurate enough to be followed now. Content is being prepared by one or more users. Do not make any changes before you post a message in this forum. Please use the talk page for thoughts and ideas on setting up this content.

The following article contains key information on properly creating junctions and the roadways between them. Be sure to review it in its entirety before editing the map.

Simple is better

When representing junctions, intersections, interchanges, cross roads, corners, etc., the Waze map does not need to perfectly match the road layouts it represents. The primary goal is to represent the real world as simply as possible in the maps and only introduce complexity in the maps to address complex issues.

The basics

This guide requires a complete understanding of editing the maps with Waze Map Editor (WME).

Map editing 101

Although it is highly recommended to read the editing manual before touching the map, it is required that you do not continue with this guide until you have read the following:

Junction definition

Junction selected.png Uneditable junction.png Junction unsaved.png

The Glossary on Junctions provides details on how junctions can appear differently in the editor depending on its state or condition.

A junction is made up of three things:

  1. Two or more road segments
  2. One point where all the segments meet (the junction point itself)
  3. Turns allowed or restricted when traveling from one segment to another through that junction point

Controlling Turn Instructions

Keep Right Keep Left
Turn Right Turn Left
Exit Right Exit Left

Turn instructions are critical for proper client navigation. They are controlled by:

  • The angle set between segments at junctions.
  • The road names.
  • The road types.

Review the article controlling turn instructions for a complete understanding of the requirements and issues surrounding this topic.

Surface Streets

Intersections

Jct 3 90.png Jct 4 90.png Jct ramp no geo.png
4waysplitsplit.png

Basic intersections involve three or four road segments meeting at a single point. Some more complex variations resemble H or # shapes.

In all cases it is important to configure these intersections properly. Detailed information is covered in the Intersections article.


No Outlet Roads

Roads which only have one way in and one way out can present challenges to the routing server, although they seem simple to our minds.

Dead Ends

Dead Ends (a.k.a. No Exit, Closed, No Through Road, No Outlet) are road segments that simply end, with no continuation or connections at one end. In some areas, a Dead End may be synonymous with a Cul-de-sac. In the US, a "No Outlet" sign may be used to indicate a road which itself is not a dead end, but it only connects to other dead end roads. It can also be used as a "friendlier" alternative to the typical Dead End sign.

Within the Map Editor it is possible to represent a dead end road with multiple segments if there are private driveways or parking lot roads mapped and connected. In that case, only the very last segment is considered the dead end segment.

Jct dead end.png

Make sure that there is a junction indicator (the small blue dot, not just a geometry node) at the very end of the segment. While this one segment does not actually constitute a junction, the small blue dot is a visual indicator to the editor that the end of this segment is properly set up. This is necessary to ensure proper routing out of the segment. See the Cul-de-sac section below on when and how to fix this.

Jct dead end ex.png

This final junction indicator must be located near the end of the road, but it should be located where there is still pavement as not to negatively impact client routes. Waze only considers the road fully traversed if both ends of the segment are fully crossed. If the junction indicator at the end of the segment happens to be at the edge of the pavement (or off of the road surface if aerials are not exactly aligned), it will be very difficult for a driver to cross that junction. A good rule of thumb is to have the end of the segment the same distance from the end of the pavement as it is from each side of the road.

With such a placement, the driver is given a chance to cross that junction indicator for that segment. Also check for the proper u-turn setting as covered in the best practices article on u-turns.

Cul-de-sacs

See also: Cul-de-sac article on Wikipedia

A Cul-de-sac (a.k.a. Court in the US) is a common treatment of a dead end street in a residential neighborhood.

In almost every situation, a cul-de-sac should be treated exactly as a dead end street, with the final junction indicator in the center of the bulb of the cul-de-sac. Be sure the free end of the final road segment has small blue dot displayed at the tip (when not editing or selecting the segment). If there is no blue dot, please correct it by following the steps for fixing dead ends.

Jct cul-de-sac ex.png

The junction indicator should be located close to the middle of the bulb and NOT near the outer edges. If the end of the segment is positioned along the perimeter of the bulb, there may be difficulty in processing client routes. Waze only considers the road fully traversed if both ends of a segment are crossed. If the end of the segment happens to be on the curb (or off of the road surface if aerials are not exactly aligned), it will be very difficult for a driver to cross the end of the road segment. With the junction in the middle of the visual road, we give a driver a good chance to cross the end of the segment no matter where they drive within the bulb. The exception to this guidance is given in the next example.

Jct cul-de-sac island ex.png Jct cul-de-sac island ex road.png

This cul-de-sac, with a small island, should be treated as a basic dead end with no loop. The island can be ignored, as there is no significant routing question for the driver once they get to the cul-de-sac.

As for placement of the final junction indicator, here we may get better results by moving the junction out from the true center and over to the outer perimeter of the central island. The shift ensures that the driver has a good opportunity to cross the end of the segment.

However, if the cul-de-sac has a very large bulb with a large island in the middle, it may better be treated as a Loop. A good rule of thumb is if you were standing at the end of the cul-de-sac, can you tell that it is just a cul-de-sac? Or does it look like two different roads? If you see an island, but are not sure if it is significant, leave the Loop out. If "Missing Road" errors occur on the road, then add a Loop.

Loops

Road segments form a loop when you can trace a path from a starting point around to the same point without retracing any portion of the traced path.

Every loop must be made up of three or more segments

Loop 3-part 6.jpg
Any loop that does not follow this rule can cause problems for the Waze routing server. If there is no side-street, you must insert an extra junction node along the loop. Many new editors will see the extra junction node(s), assume they are not needed, and delete them. Please educate new editors.

Two-segment loops

Two-segment loops create a situation called "same endpoint drivable segments" or "same connection segments". There are two or more ways to get from one junction node to another without going through any other nodes. They can cause a problem for the Waze app regardless of the direction, or other attributes of the segments. This is because the routing server gives your mobile app a list of node IDs only, but the app needs to tell you which segments to drive on. If there are two ways to get from one node to the next without going through any other nodes, then the Waze app might just have to guess. It might guess a detour off the highway through a service road or scenic overlook. Please save Waze from this silliness. Correct two-segment loops.

One-segment loops

Dead end loop.png
One-segment or self-connected loops are often found in basemap areas. It is difficult for Waze editors to create one-segment loops. Depending on the situation, these should be converted to three-segment loops or simple dead-end roads. For more on loops on dead-end roads, please see cul-de-sac. It is important to preserve house number data on these segments.
Fixing one-segment loops

If you try to edit a one-segment loop, but then cannot save the changes, undo your changes and then try one of the following to fix it:

  • If the loop and the road leading to it have the same name
    1. Select the loop and the road.
    2. Click the bridge icon that appears (one end of the loop will disconnect from the other)
    3. Move the now free end of the loop so it is slightly separated
    4. Save
  • If the loop and the road leading to it have different names
    1. Draw a new road segment that connects to the loop/road junction
    2. Give that new road the same exact name as the loop
    3. Select the loop and the new road segment
    4. Click the bridge icon that appears (one end of the loop will disconnect from the other)
    5. Move the now free end of the loop so it is slightly separated
    6. Save
  • Create a dead end road or a three-segment dead-end loop as appropriate.
  • Fix elevations.
  • Confirm turns.

Here is a video on YouTube showing the second method.

Jct roundabout.png

Roundabouts and traffic circles

It may be tempting to use the roundabout feature to create a loop shape. Do not do this unless the loop is a roundabout or traffic circle. Roundabouts give special routing instructions, and must not be used for other purposes. To learn more, please see the Roundabout page.

At-grade connectors

Jct at grade keep.png

With exceptions, don't set these segments as ramps! Watch out for all of the turns you need to restrict. For a more detailed discussion, see the full At-grade connectors article.

Interchanges and ramps

An interchange is a road junction where two roads are connected by dedicated roadways, called ramps. The roads connected by an interchange do not intersect one another directly, and if they cross, the crossing is grade-separated.

When to use ramps

Use of the  Ramp  type is governed by the following rules:

Ramp and interchange style

For guidance on the proper configuration of ramps, interchanges and wayfinders, see Junction Style Guide/Interchange.

Special Cases

Transitions

Jct transition.png Jct transition 90.png

A transition is a non-junction depicted using a junction node.

Valid examples of where to use a Transition node include:

  1. Road name changes
  2. City Limits
  3. Road Direction changes
  4. Part of a Loop Road
  5. Speed Limit Change

Before the current house numbering system came into use, transition nodes were used to aid in house numbering, but that is no longer required.

There may be existing transition nodes on the map for other reasons like remaining after a connecting road is deleted, inherited from the original base map import when rivers and streams created junctions, etc.

As long as you are certain it is not a valid transition node, a superfluous junction node may be deleted. Doing so will simplify the map, eliminate turn restrictions to maintain, and reduce computing resource needs. Also consider removing the geometry node which will replace the junction node you delete, if that geometry node is not needed.

Roads to Nowhere

In certain situations it may be necessary to add road segments that are un-drivable in order to provide accurate navigation instructions.

Actual

A valid use of this technique is at the temporary end of a freeway. As a freeway is built, it is often opened in sections, up to a certain exit. If we map this as a regular freeway segment leading to a ramp segment, no announcement will be made for that final exit, no matter what we name the exit ramp.

This can be confusing if the ramp is set up as a properly signed and numbered exit, especially if a driver is traveling a long distance on this freeway. Imagine traveling down a freeway and seeing your next instruction is "turn left at Main St." You would probably wonder if there was a map error since you shouldn't be making a left turn off of a freeway.

If we map even just a little of the future path of the freeway, this gives the routing engine a junction which will generate an "exit" instruction at the end of the freeway, thus eliminating any confusion.

Conversely, if we do NOT want an exit instruction at the end of a freeway, ensure there are no road segments extending past the final exit, to ensure the final exit is the only path out of the final freeway segment.

Offset Roads

Jct 4 offset.png

Sometimes you will find two roads which cross, where one does not quite line up with the other.

There are a few things we need to look at in this situation.

  • Do the roads actually line up in reality? If so we need to modify the junction to be a basic 4-way junction.
Jct 4 offset align.png Jct 4 offset align ex.png
  • Do the roads ALMOST line up in reality? If you were giving instructions to a person and would tell them to go straight with no mention of any slight turn or jog, then we want to make it into a 4-way junction. You may need to "split the difference" and not follow the centerline of either road to achieve this. The angles are exaggerated in this next example to show how the junction is forced to be close to 90 degrees, then we taper to the true centerlines of the roads. In practice this can be much more gradual and/or done while zoomed in very close.
Jct 4 offset ex.png
  • Finally, is there a true separation between the roads? Would you need to say for example "turn left then make an immediate right"? If so then we will want to leave the junction such that the two sides do not align.
Jct 4 offset sep ex.png

Since we want to avoid very short segments of road (the GPS chips in consumer devices can be very inaccurate which may make it seem that a driver skipped right over a short segment. This will result in automated map errors and possible route recalculations in the client,) it may be wise to shift the side roads as far apart from each other as possible with them still in the proper location (along the far curb lines for a residential street for example). This will maximize the length of the short segment between the side roads.