Best practices for different types of crossings
Crossings can be classified according to the number of single and split(double) roads involved in the crossing. For each of these there exist solutions to prevent U-turns.
Why prevent U-turns?
- We do not want Waze to suggest illegal routings. Ever. U-turns are rarely ever allowed, but Waze will suggest one on each and every occasion where it thinks it is appropriate.
- Ad-hoc routing gets better if no U-turns are possible.
- Simple 3-Way-Crossing (SSS)
Not much to say about this one - except that it is the ideal 3-way crossing: simple, stable, solid. Not much can go wrong with this one! If you have to deal with any of the following types of crossing, you may first look if it is possible to turn them into this type, since it will save you from a lot of trouble later on.
- Single road crossing a dual road (SSD)
The next simple type of crossing already has limitations. The way it is drawn here there is nothing that stops Waze from plotting a U-turn. Coming over the double road it takes two left-turns to get back on the road you came from. Typically that is NOT what you want.
- Dual road crossing a single road (DDS)
- 3 Dual roads crossing (DDD)
When this type of crossing is generated in the basemap, it looks like the image presented here. It allows for U-turns in all directions.
- Simple 4-Way-Crossing (SSSS)
Ah, the "Mother of all Crossings"! We are lucky that almost all crossings look like this. It is possible to define each and every turnrestriction with a single node, and U-turns do not happen when all 4 roads in this junction are locked (No, there is no evidence for that. But each and everytime a simple crossing does allow a U-turn, at least one of the roads was found not to be locked. If all roads are locked, Waze routes you around a block instead of making a U-turn).
- Dual road crossing 3 single roads (DSSS)
This is an ugly crossing if you come from/go to the SE. You get a direction to "Turn left, turn right". First check if the double road can be made into a single one, so you get a SSSS. If that fails you may want to join the double lanes into a single node, creating a sort of half-mapcat-bowtie.
- 2 Dual roads crossing 2 single roads (DDSS)
This one allows for U-turns to be made if you enter over one of the double lanes.
- 3 Dual roads crossing 1 single road (DDDS)
Ugly! If you can not turn this one into a SSSS or DDSS, consider adding an extra fork on the single road and create a DDDD.
- 4 Dual roads crossing (DDDD)
This crossing allows U-turns in each and every direction if no precautions are taken.